Or History they won't teach you in school.
You think you've seen it all..?
I am 7 gr grandson of Charles
Augustin Langlade's dual connections also allowed him to pass on to his only child--Charles Langlade-- both an established Ottawa trade, and a
commission in the French army, albeit the Indian service. Charles Langlade's brilliant career as Indian military leader, strategist and agent
stretching over nearly forty years and three empires is well known. Less attention has been given to his bicultural skills. The product of two
cultures and education systems, Langlade moved comfortably between Indian and European societies. When not wintering with his Ottawa relatives, he was
tutored by Jesuit missionaries at the straits. His grace and intelligence impressed both French and British military leaders, although they rightfully
suspected his allegiance.
Similarly, Langlade held the admiration and respect of his Ottawa kin, who named him Akewangeketawso--military conqueror. As early as age ten, he was
carried into battle against the Chickasaws under the protective arm of his maternal uncle-- LaFourche. The Ottawa thought Langlade possessed a
powerful manito, and, had he desired, he might have risen to prominence within his mother's people.
Langlade chose not to identify his interests with either power. Rather, like his military compatriots, Claude Gauthier (a Métis nephew), J.B. Cadotte
and Louis Chevalier, all early Michilimackinac traders and voyageurs, he preferred an intermediary stance. Langlade and the others were the elite
nuclei around which stable Métis communities were formed at Green Bay, Prairie du Chien, and LaPointe, Wisconsin, and St. Joseph, Michigan.
Charles Langlade predictably married first an Ottawa woman of La Fourche's band. However, his fame after the destruction of Pickawillany and
Braddock's defeat in 1755 secured him both a perpetual superintendency of the Indians of Green Bay and the hand of a French creole daughter of a
Detroit trader. Langlade moved permanently to Green Bay after 1763, having traded there with his father and kin from the 1740s. He carried with him an
aging mother and father, his wife and two small daughters, his nephew Gauthier, and his part-Ottawa son Charles and daughter Agathe.
The children received a proper education. Charles Jr., after schooling in Montreal, joined his father in the trade, and later became a British Indian
interpreter. The daughters, tutored at home, married traders and a voyageur from Michilimackinac. The youngest, Domitille, inherited the family
compound and trade at Green Bay and with her husband, Pierre Grignon, launched the third generation of influence.
By the time Charles Langlade and Claude Gauthier died, just after the turn of the century, their related dynasties were well entrenched at Green Bay,
Michilimackinac, and Prairie du Chien. Their Métis children and grandchildren all functioned successfully as traders, traders' wives, interpreters,
militia and Indian service officers. Moreover, their grandsons were already renewing the cycle --seeking wider affiliations whose byproduct inevitably
would swell the Métis ranks.
Charles de Langlade: early Wisconsin soldier
The Journal Times, Oct. 25, 1997
In 1729, in what is now Michigan, a son was born to Canadian emigre Augustin de Langlade and his wife Domitelle, sister to an Ottawa chief.
Their son, named Charles de Langlade, would become a Wisconsin legend.
Part of that legend has it that at the age of 10, Langlade joined a band of local Indians in a nearby battle. The Indian leader had dreamt that if the
boy accompanied them, they would be victorious. They were. So began Langlade's career as a soldier.
Langlade's connection to Wisconsin began in the 1740s, when his family moved to La Baye (now Green Bay) to follow the fur trade. The Northwest was
still a French territory, and so when the British, contesting French supremacy in the Americas, built a fort named Pickawillany on the Miami River in
Ohio, Indians who had once had no other choice but the French now began to sell their furs to the British. The French were displeased.
Langlade was chosen to lead the force of Ottawa that fell on the post, killing the chief trader and several Indian defenders, then eating the Miami
chief, known to the British as Old Briton, in ritual ceremony.
Langlade's service under the French continued with great success during the French and Indian War. He led the force of Menominee, Winnebago and
Potawatomi that was credited with turning the battle against British Gen. Braddock into a rout, and led a skirmish against the famous Rogers'
Rangers, in which Rogers himself was wounded.
He remained in Wisconsin after the war, and was loyal to the British as he had been to the French, attempting to warn the British commander at
Mackinac of impending danger from an Indian confederacy under the Ottawa chief Pontiac. He aided the British in the Revolutionary War, taking part in
the invasion of New York and using his influence among the Indians to retain their loyalty to the British.
Langlade lived out the balance of his life at his home in Green Bay. Said to have survived 99 battles throughout his life, he died there in 1800.
Nov. 30, 1754, I, the undersigned missionary priest of the society of Jesus performing the duties of parish priest at this post, received the mutual
marriage consent of Charles, a slave of M r . Bourassa, of the one part; and of marie, a slave of M r . l'englade, the younger, after two
publications of bans with dispensation from the third, and there being no impediment.
* * * M. L. Lefranc , Miss. of the society of Jesus.
Bourassa; langlade; nanette Bourassa; Charlotte Bourassa Langlade; Charles Chaboillez; Rene toullis; La Combe .
Monseigneur --I have the honor to send you the Journal67 of the Sieur de Langlade who has won much glory through the blow he struck the Band of la
Demoiselle, and who brought me five Englishmen who were in the Miamis' fort. I am sending them to Monsieur de L'abbady, Commissioner at la Rochelle
so that he may put them in prison pending your orders. I trust that this blow, added to the complete pillage suffered by the English on this occasion,
will discourage them from trading on our lands.
It is so rare, Monseigneur, that a war with savages can bring about a very stable peace that I should not be surprised if, at the instigation of the
English, the Miamis were to ask their Allies for help. Nevertheless, I have had no news of it, and I hope that my action in the Belle Rivière country
will awe all the Nations.
As the Sieur de Langlade is not in the service and has married a Savage woman, I will content myself with asking you, Monseigneur, for a yearly
pension of 200 livres wherewith he will be highly pleased. He is acknowledged here to be very brave, to have much influence on the minds of the
savages, and to be very zealous when ordered to do anything.68 It seems to me, Monseigneur, that such a reward would have a very good effect in the
country. I remain with profound respect, Monseigneur, Your very humble and very obedient servant,
Quebec , October 25, 1752.
67 This journal of Langlade is not found with the letter, and appears to have been abstracted from the archives at a comparatively recent date; it is
to be hoped that it will sometime be recovered. The document here given seems to be the only French account of this siege of Pickawillany. It is
without doubt the authority for Parkman's account in Montcalm and Wolfe (Boston, 1887), i, p. 81. The English sources are more numerous. Among these,
the chief is Journal of Captain William Trent, already alluded to ( ante, p. 114, note 63). Trent was a trader and interpreter employed by Virginia
and the Ohio Company to assist at the treaty of Logstown in June, 1752. Thence he was deputed to carry the goods intended for the Miami, who had not
appeared at the conference. Leaving Logstown June 21, the very day of the attack on Pickawillany, he soon heard rumors of this conflict; and when he
reached the Scioto, found Thomas Burney and Andrew McBryer, the two traders who had escaped capture. They related to Trent that on the morning of June
21, while most of the Miami were absent upon their summer hunt, a party of 240 French and Indians appeared, captured the women at work in the
cornfields, and nearly surprised the traders, of whom eight were in the outbuildings around the fort. Three traders were besieged in a house, and
acted in so cowardly a manner, surrendering without showing fight, that they revealed the weak condition of the fort. In the afternoon a truce was
called, and the French leader proposed to retire if the traders were given up to them. It was finally agreed to yield them up on promise that they
should not be harmed--but see on this point Jared Sparks, Franklin's Works, iii. p. 230. The besiegers did not keep faith, for although they
surrendered the captive women, they killed one wounded trader, and, taking out his heart, ate it. They also killed chief La Demoiselle, and feasted on
his remains. The Miami also broke their word by concealing the two traders before mentioned. After a few days Trent and a considerable company went to
see what had become of the fort, and found it deserted. They brought back a few furs that had escaped the plunder of the savages, the loss having
aggregated £3,000 sterling. A few of the Miami, including the widow and son of La Demoiselle, escaped to the Scioto town, but a large majority
returned to the French. The Pennsylvania authorities sent the Miami the following year a present valued at £200 to "cover the dead." For additional
details see Penn. Colon. Recs., v. pp. 599, 600; Henry Howe, History of Ohio (Columbus, 1889--91), Shelby County; and George Bancroft, History of the
United States (Boston, 1857), iv, pp. 94, 95. In Draper MSS. 1J1--7 there are transcripts from two contemporaneous newspapers, with additional
68 Two published accounts of the life of Charles Langlade are to be found in Wis. Hist. Colls., iii, pp. 195--295, being related by his grandson,
Augustin Grignon, in 1857, to Lyman C. Draper; the other a sketch by Joseph Tassé, vii, pp. 123--188. In addition, the "Langlade Papers" were
published in viii pp. 209--223. Since that time there have been found further documents bearing on Langlade's career--most of these being
incorporated in the present volume. These, together with the Mackinac Register, post, warrants the following new sketch. Charles Michel Langlade was
born at Mackinac in May, 1729. If the incident related by Grignon of his accompanying troops at the age of ten be true, the expedition must have been
that of Céloron against the Chickasaw, in 1739--40. Herein he would have met numbers of Canadian army officers from Montreal, and French and colonial
troops from New Orleans. To this event was probably due his early enrollment in the army. Du Quesne must have been mistaken about Langlade's not
being in service, for the Mackinac Register records him as being a cadet in 1750, when twenty-one years of age. The present reference to him is, so
far as we have as yet ascertained, the first made in any contemporary official document. No doubt his services on the expedition of 1752 brought him
prominently into notice. He was not legally married to an Ottawa woman, but early had a son by an Indian girl, whose descendants, living in Ontario,
still carry the name of Langlade ; see Ontario Hist. Soc. Papers, iii, p. 147. In 1754, at Mackinac, he legally married Charlotte Bourassa. While no
doubt he for many years traded at La Baye (Green Bay) and elsewhere, there is ample and convincing evidence that until after September, 1764, his
usual residence was at Mackinac. His part in the French and Indian War has been described by Grignon and Tassé. At its outbreak he was made ensign on
half-pay, and campaigned against Braddock. The following winter he passed in a small post in Michigan, where (January, 1756) his daughter Charlotte
was born. In 1756 he led a reinforcement of Indians to Fort Duquesne, and skirmished toward Fort Cumberland where Washington was in command. During
the winter of 1756--57 he does not appear to have returned to Mackinac; at least he was in Montreal in December, and in January defeated a raid of
Robert Rogers's famous rangers on Lake Champlain. In May, he was again in Montreal and led the Western Indians against Fort William Henry, where no
doubt they participated in the massacre. In the autumn of 1757 Langlade was appointed second in command of Fort Mackinac, and appears to have remained
there until the spring of 1759, when, with other Western partisan leaders, he served in the Quebec campaign. His share therein is explained by Tassé.
His abilities gained him promotion (Feb. 1, 1760) to the rank of lieutenant on half-pay--his well-preserved commission, signed by King Louis at
Versailles, is now the property of the Misses S. G. and D. B. Martin of Green Bay, but is deposited in the Society's library; it is one of the oldest
original documents extant in Wisconsin, bearing upon the history of the State (see accompanying facsimile). He also participated in the defense of
Montreal in the summer of 1760, and was sent back to Mackinac five days before its surrender. There he was in command after the departure of Beaujeu
for Louisiana (see post), and finally surrendered the fort (Sept. 28, 1761) to the English under Capt. Henry Balfour of the 80th regiment (Light Armed
Foot) and Lieut. William Leslie of the 60th (Royal Americans). During the next year and a half Langlade remained quietly in Mackinac, probably making
trading voyages to the interior posts--doubtless La Baye among them. In April, 1763, he had planned to remove with his family to La Baye, and there
establish his residence, but had not consummated this project when the conspiracy of Pontiac broke out, the fort at Mackinac being captured by the
Indians (June 2, 1763). That he preserved the lives of the officers and part of the garrison, secured the neutrality of the turbulent Ottawa, and
finally stayed the outbreak is abundantly proven by contemporary documents published herein. Ethrington, upon his departure for Montreal with the
English survivors of the massacre, placed the command of the fort once more in the hands of Langlade , who retained it until September, 1764, when
Capt. William Howard of the 17th regiment of foot was sent to re-establish British authority. It appears to have been either in the autumn of 1764 or
during 1765 that the Langlades at last made their permanent home at Green Bay. In 1766, Robert Rogers, then commandant at Mackinac, addresses him as
"Lieutenant Langlead at La Bay." At the outbreak of the Revolution, Langlade was sent with savage auxiliaries to the aid of Carleton, who gave him a
commission as captain in the Indian department. In 1777 he was again sent with native reinforcements for Burgoyne's army, but returned before the
latter's surrender. In 1778 he was dispatched to Montreal. The following years of this war found him occupied in the West, chiefly against George
Rogers Clark. The remainder of his life was devoted to private interests, his services for the king being, however, well recognized. His death must
have occurred after January, 1800. See autograph letter, post.-- Ed.
Michillimakinack 13 th of June 1777.
Sir ,--Since the departure of Mr. Langlade 1 the Pottawatamies arriv'd here from St. Joseph's fifteen in number who are all either chiefs or chiefs
sons totally ignorant of Bark Canoes. I am therefore oblig'd to send them in a Return Canoe, I hire for that purpose as Mr Langlade assured me you
was very desirous of seeing some of that nation their behaviour here has been Remarkably good they came under the conduct of Monsr Le Chevallier2 a
man spoken very ill of at Detroit. I however perceive by the great attachment those Indians have to him that he had better be caressed at present than
otherwise--Chariot Lassossissay the Iroquois came also with them and conducts them to Montreal. This Indian speaks good french and is a good subject
Mr Langlade sent him with Therry [Thierry] to St Josephs to raise the Pottawatamies where he fell sick, but nevertheless was indifatigable in bringing
over those Indians at another time those gentry would require a good Let down for past offenses and some very recent ones but at Present no nation
requires more tender treatment their coming in I hope is a step towards future good behaviour.
Gautier is this instant arriving with the Sawks and Raynards I must therefore hurry them them off before they see each other as a meeting will be
rather inconvenient at Present and may greatly protract this Voyage.
Gautier it seems has been employ'd by Mr Langlade to bring those Indians in here I can count in the Canoes to the number of thirty two.
I am &c &c &c
(signed) A.S. DE PEYSTER .
P.S. I have enclosed the examination of the Minominies goods to Mr Langlade by which there appears to have been a most Scandalous Imbarrelment.
Indorsed:--"Copy of a Letter from Major Arrant Schuyler Depeyster dated Michillimakinac 13th of June 1777. In Sir Guy Carletons (No 28) of 9th July
1 See Wis. Hist. Coll., vii., pp. 405 et seq., for other letters written by Do Peyster regarding Langlade's expedition to Green Bay in 1777.-- Ed.
2 Louis Chevalier, a trader at St. Joseph's. Id., xi., p. 116, note 1.-- Ed.
[Commission to Charles Langlade, dated March 15, 1755. MS. in Archives Coloniales, Paris; pressmark, "Colonies, civil and military officers, série D,
vol. 2, fol. 1011/2."]
All traders are ordered to embark two or three indians in their canoes, in case of Messrs. Langlade and Gaultier not having sufficient canoes to fetch
them to this post for the service of the King. Mr. Langlade to furnish them with provisions.
Given at Fort Michilimaquenac, May 10, 1778.
At. S. De Peyster ,
Major Commanding .
Gentlemen ,--By the power given me by his Excellency, General Haldimand, Commander-in-Chief of the armies of his majesty the King of Great Britain in
Canada, etc., etc., etc.
To do all in my power to assist Lieutenant Governor Hamilton in all his enterprises against the rebels, and since I have been apprised by a letter of
the Lieutenant Governor that he has gone to dislodge the rebels of the Illinois, asking me to give him assistance, you are ordered by these presents
to go and try to raise the nations.
M. Langlade * will go from the Grand River to St. Joseph, where the Short-Ears and the Sauteaux are, and make them assemble at St. Joseph without loss
* See appendix
Mr. Gautier* will go directly to St. Joseph, there addressing himself to Mr.
Louison Chevallier to request him to assist Mr. Anise in assembling the Poutuatomies (Pottawattomies), while he, Gautier, shall do his best to have
information of the situation of Mr. Hamilton, making report of the same to Mr. Langlade . They will do their best to join him by the shortest route,
or to descend the Illinois river if it is possible and more likely to assist the operations of Mr. Hamilton.
Since events cannot be foreseen, in case Mr. Hamilton have yielded and returned to Detroit, then, if you do not believe yourself strong enough in men
to attack the Caskakies or the Cahokias, you will send the Indians home to their winter quarters and will by the shortest route gain your different
posts, Mr. Langlade at the [Green] Bay and Mr. Gautier at the Mississippi, there to try to keep the nations well disposed for the service until new
In this enterprise it is recommended to you to say to the warriors to use humanity towards the prisoners and others who may be found without arms,
because there are several English traders retained by force amongst them. The prisoners will be paid for.
Since the nations in general have had many presents from his majesty before, it is recommended to you to make as little expense as the nature of the
service will allow, not giving them anything but what is absolutely necessary.
Given at the Fort Michilimaquenac this 26th of October, 1778.
At. S. De Peyster ,
L.S . Major of the King's regiment and Commander of the said post and dependencies .
To Capt. Langlade and Lieut. Gautier.
Michillimakinacn 13th of June 1777.
Sir , Since the departure of Mr. Langlade the Pottawatamies arriv'd here from St. Joseph's fifteen in number who are all either chiefs or chiefs
sons totally ignorant of Bark Canoes. I am therefore oblig'd to send them in a Return Canoe, I hire for that purpose as Mr. Langlade assured me you
was very desirous of seeing some of that nation their behaviour here has been Remarkably good they came under the conduct of Monsr Le Chevallier a man
spoken very ill of at Detroit. I however perceive by the great attachment those Indians have to him that he had better be caressed at present than
otherwise--Chariot Lassossissay the Iroquois came also with them and conducts them to Montreal. This Indian speaks good french and is a good subject
Mr Langlade sent him with Therry to St Josephs to raise the Pottawatamies where he fell sick, but nevertheless was indifatigable in bringing over
those Indians at another time those gentry would require a good Let down for past offenses and some very recent ones but at Present no nation requires
more tender treatment their coming in I hope is a step towards future good behaviour.
Gautier is this instant arriving with the Saucks and Raynards I must therefore hurry them off before they see each other as a meeting will be rather
inconvenient at Present and may greatly protract this Voyage.
Gautier it seems has been employ'd by Mr Langlade to bring those Indians in here I can count in the Canoes to the number of thirty two.
I am &c &c &c
(signed) A.S. De Peyster .
P. S. I have enclosed the examination of the Minominies goods to Mr Langlade by which then appears to have been a most Scandalous Imbarrelment.
Endorsed:--Copy of a Letter from Major Arrant Schuyler Depeyster dated Michilimakinac 13th of June 1777. In Sir Guy Carletons (No 28) of 9th July,
[Q 13 p 327]
[Letter from De Peyster to Langlade and Gautier, dated Oct. 26, 1778. Reprinted from De Peyster, Miscellanies , p. lxx.]
Messieurs --in accordance with the power that has been given me by his Excellency General Haldimand, Commandant in Chief of the Armies of his Majesty
the King of Great Britain, in Canada, etc. etc. etc. to do all in my power to assist Lieut. Gov. Hamilton97 in all his enterprises against the Rebels,
and as I have learned by letter from the Lieut. Governor that he has gone to dislodge the Rebels of the Illinois98 and 97 Henry Hamilton was of Irish
descent, of the family of the Marquis of Boyne. He early entered the army (1754), and was commissioned lieutenant of the 15th in 1756. He served with
Amherst at Louisburg, was with Wolfe at Quebec, and later (1761--63) was in the West Indies. His regiment was in England, 1768--76, but in the summer
of 1775 Hamilton was in Quebec, being there appointed lieutenant-governor of Detroit. He arrived at the latter place Nov. 9 of that year, and was much
occupied in counteracting American influence among the neighboring Indians; see Thwaites and Kellogg, Revolution on the Upper Ohio. In the autumn of
1778, he advanced against Vincennes and retook the fort from the Americans, only to be captured with all his garrison by Col. George Rogers Clark
(February, 1779). Hamilton was sent a prisoner to Virginia, and there kept in close confinement until his exchange in 1780. He then visited England,
returning to Canada as lieutenant-governor, 1782--85. In 1790 he was governor of the Bermudas, and four years later of Dominica. During the latter
incumbency he died (1796) and was buried on the island.-- Ed. 98 Since Langlade's departure for Canada in June, 1778, matters had taken an unexpected
turn in the Western country. Col. George Rogers Clark, commissioned by Virginia, had marched from the Falls of Ohio and surprised Kaskaskia (July 4),
capturing the commandant and securing the allegiance of the French habitants. In August he held a great council with the northern Indians, and secured
many for his allegiance--see certificates to Winnebago and Fox chiefs in Wis. Hist. Colls., xi, pp. 133, 177. Pierre Gibault, the Kaskaskia priest,
had meanwhile visited Vincennes in the interests of the Americans. He there secured the coöperation of its inhabitants, who took oaths of allegiance;
also the alliance of the neighboring Piankashaw Indians. Capt. Leonard Helm was established in charge of this post When the news reached Detroit,
Lieut.-Gov. Henry Hamilton determined to go in person to retrieve this disaster, and retake Vincennes; see his correspondence in Ill. Hist. Colls., i,
pp. 330--409.-- Ed.
asks me to give him assistance--you are ordered by these presents to depart and try to arouse the nations. Monsieur Langlade from the Grand River as
far as St. Josephe, where are the Court Oreilles and the Ganteaux [Sauteur], causing them to assemble without loss of time at St. Josephe.99
99 The Chippewa (Sauteur), and some of the Ottawa from the neighborhood of Mackinac, had long wintered on Grand River, Michigan. Langlade had a
trading establishment among them as early as 1755; see ante, p. 130. The term "Court Oreilles" (short-ears) meant simply natural ears that had not
been extended by artificial means. A band of Wisconsin Chippewa is so named at present, whence Lac Court Oreilles. The band here mentioned were
Ottawa, as is proven by De Peyster's letter in Wis. Hist. Colls., xi, p. 121.-- Ed.
Monsieur Gautier will go direct to St. Josephe there addressing himself to Mens. Louison Chevalier1 in order to require him to assist Monsieur Ainse
in assembling the Poutouatamies, while Gautier does his best to obtain Intelligence of the situation of Monsieur Hamilton, making his report thereof
to Monsieur Langlade . They will do their best to join him by the shortest route, or descend the Illinois River if it is possible and better
calculated to second the operations of Monsieur Hamilton.
1 For the Chevalier family see ante, p. 136, note 80. Louis, commonly known as Louison, was born in 1720 and sometime before the close of the French
regime settled at St. Josephs. Here he was engaged in trade and agriculture, and had a large establishment, being the principal personage of the
settlement. In 1763 he saved the lives of some of the English garrison, and no fort being re-established at this place he became a quasi-commandant,
executing the orders of the British officers at Detroit and Mackinac. He was trusted by Do Peyster, but suspected of correspondence with Americans by
the latter's successor Sinclair, who had him arrested and sent to Montreal. There he was retained until 1782, after which nothing more is known
concerning him. See post.-- Ed.
As one cannot arrange for operations in case Monsieur Hamilton
has given up [his expedition] and returned to Detroit, in such an event if you do not consider yourselves strong enough to make a stroke on the
Caskakias, or at the Cahokias, you will send back the savages to their Wintering-grounds and you will regain your different posts by the shortest
Monsieur Langlade will go to La Bay, and Monsieur Gautier to the Mississippi, and there try to keep the nations well disposed for the service until
the arrival of new orders.
In this enterprise I recommend to you to exhort the Warriors to use Humanity toward the prisoners, and others who are found without arms since there
are English traders retained by force among * * *
The prisoners will be ransomed. As the nations have already had in General many presents from his Majesty, you are recommended to incur as little
expense as the nature of the service will permit in giving them nothing that is not absolutely Necessary.
At. S. de Peyster ,
Major of the Regt. of the King and Comman't at the said post and dependencies.
Given at Fort Michilimaquenac , this 26 October, 1778.
To Monsr. Captain Langlade and Lieut. Gautier .
La Baye the 5th March 1783
Governor , This letter is to assure you of my very humble respects and to inform you that according to the report brought by some Puants when the
Traders passed at the Portages of Ouis-consin their nation wished to rob them, that in the tumult there was a Puant, called Boeuf Blanc killed and
that, to revenge themselves they took from Mr. Reilh five or six packets as well of liquor as other things and as they were still drunk when Mr
Blondeau passed he also was obliged to give them plunder to save his life. There were forty Sauteaux, men, women and children who were eating each
other because of the famine in La Baye des Nôques; Caron Chief of the Folles-Avoines died the 3rd of November, and one named Marcotte a Trader was
killed it is not known whether by the Sauteaux or the Scioux but that three men escaped although two were wounded.
I hope soon to have the honor of going to tender you my respects and if you have still need of my services command me when you please, you will find
me always ready to receive your orders for I am always with the greatest respect,
the faithful servant of the King
Captain of the Indian Department
Addressed:--To Captain Robertson Governor of Michilimackinac at Michilimackinac
Endorsed:--1783 Letter from Captain Langlade to Captain Robertson La Baye 5th March.
[B 98 p 194]
Charles de Langlade - Considered the Father of Wisconsin, was a Canadian merchant of French and Indian decent. He had first explored the Baye region
with his father, Augustin, a early as 1745. He returned years later with son-in-law Pierre (Fan Fan) Grignon and his only surviving daughter,
Domitelle, to live in the Baye region where they established trading headquarters, which included Oconto County.
[I have in my possession a copy of a letter (Report) in French, written by Capt. Charles Langlade, Angelique's grandfather, in 1783, from La Bai to
the commandant at Mackinaw, detailing an attack on Wisconsin Portage by the Indians, which he was sent to repulse.* He was also sent with a detachment
to the relief of Governor Hamilton, who was imprisoned by the Indians at Vincennes. At the close of the war Captain Langlade and one son went to Green
Bay, Wis., while another son; Charles, accompanied the British forces to Drummond Island. Subsequent to the Captain's death in Green Bay, his wife
died in Penetanguishene, while on a visit to her son, about the year 1845, at an advanced age. She was reputed to be over one hundred years. The stone
mansion, sword and piano are still in possession of descendants at Green Bay, and highly prized as memorials of Captain Langlade. Records in
possossion of the Gordon family prove that Angelique was born about 1820, if not earlier.]*Notices of Langlade and his Indians, at Labaye (Green Bay)
and Vincennes may he found in the Report on Canadian Archives, 1890, Calendar of State Papers, pages 81, 84, 85, 109, etc.
This is what I have on Langlade. It came from the book by Robert M.
Dessureau---it's called "History of Langlade County" --I have that is was
published in 1922. Here goes----
Before a historical discussion of Langlade County is undertaken it will
not be amiss to give an account of the exploits of Augustin De Langlade and
his illustrious son, Charles, in honor of whom Langlade County bears its name.
Augustin De Langlade was born about 1695. While still a young man,
lured to the unconquered and unexplored northwest of the new world he settled
near Mackinaw (Michigan) and traded with the Ottawas and married a sister of
King Nis-so-wa-quet of that famous tribe. After this union he gained
wonderful prestige over the Ottawas.
Charles De Langlade was the second child and was born in 1724 at
Mackinaw. At the age of twenty-five he moved with his parents and their
younger children to the settlement a Green Bay. Here Sieur De Langlade
continued as a trader among the Indians, living a peaceful life which ended
when he was 76 years old in 1771.
Sieur Charles De Langlade married Charlotte Bourassa, the daughter of
Rene Bourassa, a retired voyageur, who then lived at Mackinaw, August 12,
1754. The ceremony, performed by Father M. L. Le Franc, Roman Catholic
priest, was vouched for by M. Herbin, then leader and commandant of the Green
Bay post. Mme. De Langlade moved to Green Bay from Mackinaw six years after
her marriage. It was at the Green Bay settlement that De Langlade's hardy,
noble,impulsive, but dangerous career began.
Sieur Charles De Langlade gained a reputation for bravery and strategy
second to none. Before the outbreak of the French-Indian war in 1754 he had
led a force against the Sac Indian nation and succeeded in pushing them back
from their holdings in the Fox river valley to the banks of the Wisconsin
Because of his knowledge of the Indian tribes of the northwest, his
winning personality, intelligence and wonderful influence over the Red Men,
Marquis Vaudreuil, Governor-General of New France and Louisiana, selected De
Langlade to recruit a powerful force from the ten Indian nations, Ottawas (to
whom he was personally related), Chippewas, Menominees, Hurons, Winnebagoes
and others.1 The force of Indians was merged with a body of French frontier
fighters with De Langlade assuming full command.
The fearless young warrior of just thirty years proceeded at once to
Fort Du Quesne 2 where a defense against the British was planned. General
Braddock, vainly attempting to take Fort Du Quesne with his picked soldiery,
was decisively defeated. The victory of the French and Indians was due to
the persistant appeals of De Langlade to induce De Beaujeu, French
commandant, to commence the attack. Beaujeu, , after repeated requests
refused to give the order to commence battle. De Langlade then called a
council of the Indian chiefs and they demanded that Beaujeu give the order to
fight while the British were feasting or before they crossed the river
(Ohio). The French commandant, disheartened and fearing that he faced
defeat, yielded to De Langlade and gave orders to battle. Beaujeu, brave,
but pessimistic, was killed in the affray. Braddock lost twenty-six officers
and 714 of his men were killed or wounded. George Washington, young Colonial
leader, saved the retreating troops by his masterly conduct. The force under
Beaujeu and De Langlade lost but three officers and thirty men.
Dumais, Commandant of Du Quesne, then ordered De Langlade to proceed
with his force on August 9, 1756 to strike at Ft. Cumberland and obtain
information about the movements of the British in the ohio river valley.
In 1757 De Langlade participated in battles in Canada under the brave
and beloved Montcalm. De Langlade aided in the capture of Ft. William Henry
at the head of Lake George.
Septemberj8, 1757, Governor General Vaudreuil ordered De Langlade to
start from Montreal for the post of Michilimackinac to serve as second in
command under orders of M. De Beaujeu, post commandant. A year later he
returned to Canada, fought at Ticonderoga with the French-Indian force
against General Abercrombie, British leader, who suffered severe reverses in
killed and wounded.
After the battle at Ticonderoga, De Langlade went back to Ft. Du Quesne,
then threatened by the enemy. The gallant George Washington drew near the
fort. Rather than face disaster the defenders set fire to it. In November
1758 the Dragon of St. George took the place of the Lilies of France and
floated over the Ohio river valley unmolested. De Langlade returned to the
post at Green Bay.
Here De Langlade proved himself a faithful servant of France. He could
see that the power of the French was slipping, but he rendered faithful and
efficient services until the end. In the battle for possession of Quebec,
when both Montcalm and Wolfe were mortally wounded, De Langlade fought
furiously, coming out of the conflict wounded. Two of his brothers fell on
the plains of Abraham.
In 1760 he was commissioned a Lieutenant ny the King of France and
received instructions to return the Indians under his command to their
respective villages and he to locate at Mackinas. The French-Indian war
ended with the tri-color of France hauled down and De Langlade was given an
appoitment as Superintendent of Indians at Green Bay. While he did not
actively participate in the Revolutionary War, his moral assistance alone,
was worth much to the English.
However he received valuable grants of land and an annuity from the
British for his services in the Revolution. He passed away in january, 1800,
at the advanced age of 75 years and was laid to rest beside his father.
1. De Langlade's agents recruited Indians for this battle fromwithin the
limits of Langlade County.
2. Ft. DuQuesne was built at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela
rivers, and was named in honor of the Governor of
Michael Vieau and Stephen Vieau