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Originally posted by Stealth Spy
Originally posted by backtoreality
Stealth Spy, interesting links you have provided. Glad to see you are still denying "ignorence".
Stop making such a big fuss about a typing error that i made while spelling ignorance in an older thread.
IMO, it is the height of "ignorence"(let alone ignorance) to assume that other nations are happily sitting on their backsides and weefully watching america building a stealth plane for every role there exists, thinking of how america will wipe them out with something they cant see.
Originally posted by backtoreality
as other nations develop counter measures to stealth aircraft, America is and has been decade(s) ahead in their planning to counter those counter measures. 'Tis the nature of the business.
Originally posted by backtoreality
Unfortunately, I'm referring to your avatar in which every thread is declaring your personal war against "ignorence".
The Izvestia (Taras Lariokhin, "BEIJING LEARNED HOW TO SEE THE 'INVISIBLE' ONES", Moscow, Pg.7) reported that high-ranking officials of the US Defense Department and industry experts will convene in Washington this December to discuss the implications of alleged PRC capability of detecting the US F-117 Stealth aircraft.
The US intelligence claims that the new technology may be introduced to the PRC air defenses within two years. Unlike the existing radars, the new radar systems operate by detecting the temporary noises caused by a passing Stealth aircraft. The radar will not need to emit electromagnetic waves and therefore cannot be easily detected or subsequently destroyed.
The US company Lockheed Martin, which invented the Stealth technology, has also produced a similar device called the "Silent Sentinel," but has not introduced it into practice.
Russia and several European and US companies are working on a new type of radar that could be used to make America's premier stealth aircraft far more detectable, intelligence sources.
The cutting-edge work threatens to make today's most advanced stealth planes obsolete - the $40 billion fleet of B-2 bombers that saw its first action just two years ago in the air war over Kosovo and the older $6 billion fleet of F-117s.
"In the end you may have to redesign your stealth aircraft or think about adding jamming or other countermeasures," says Dan Goure, a former Pentagon official who is a senior fellow at the Lexington Institute in Arlington, Virginia. That could cost billions of dollars. And the new radar also could put US pilots in non-stealth aircraft at risk.
When stealth technology is used in modern military aircraft, usually only the forward sector of the aircraft is treated and/or shaped. This forward sector treatment is effective against static, ground based radars.
However, the aircraft may be very susceptible to a look-down type of radar. This thesis addresses the viability of using space- based radar to detect stealth aircraft. Many papers have been written on how to use space-based radar to detect and track targets.
The approach of this thesis was to select a target area, in this case Iraq, and develop two satellite constellations that could provide the required radar coverage. The next step was to determine if the system would be able to detect and track stealth targets.
Based on the analysis, one satellite in geosynchronous orbit can detect stealth aircraft. However, because the satellite is 35,786 km away, the power requirements, as well as the spot size are too large to track stealth aircraft. On the other hand, a constellation of 32 satellites in low earth orbit (1000 km) can both detect and track stealth aircraft.
Stealth teaches the lesson that technology is never static - a "stealth breakthrough" may only last for a few years before an adversary finds a means of countering it.
Low-frequency radar will spot virtually any stealthy aircraft but is bad at determining its exact location. Communications networks enabling a defensive system to combine information and locate a target also connect these and other radars. Other systems attempt to pick up radio and television signals that may bounce off a stealthy airplane.
A number of methodologies to detect stealth aircraft at long range have been developed. Both Australia and Russia have announced that they have developed processing techniques that allow them to detect the turbulence of aircraft at reasonably long ranges (possibly negating the stealth technology). The UK has announced a system that uses the signals broadcast from the huge number of cellular telephone towers to generate a synthetic picture, although it is not clear if this method is actually practical. A general feature of these systems is that they use a large number of low-accuracy radar systems (or signal sources) combined with heavy computer processing to generate tracking information.
Frequency filtering has been used in radar signal processing since it’s beginnings. Moving targets reflect energy to ground based radars that are Doppler shifted in frequency. The amount of Doppler shift is determined by the speed of the target and the direction of the target relative to the radar set. Targets moving directly toward or directly away from a radar have the maximum Doppler frequency shift. Targets moving at right angles to a radar beam have zero Doppler shift. By directing the received radar energy through banks of Doppler filters, moving targets are sorted by velocity from fixed or slow targets such as insects or birds. In radar terms this is often called a Moving Target Indicator (MTI). The National Weather Service now uses Doppler radars to detect severe storms and winds by the Doppler shift. This radar and it’s display can be seen at the following web site under NEXTRAD (WSR-88D radar): www.nws.noaa.gov... Scientists are studing bird and butterfly migrations using the NEXTRAD data!
Airborne pulse Doppler radars have a more difficult processing job because reflections from the ground are Doppler shifted by the moving radar in the aircraft. However, the aircraft knows what it’s velocity is and a notch filter can be used to reject the ground reflections. In recent times digital computers have been used to do doppler filtering, greatly improving airborne systems such as AWACS and JSTARS now being used in the mid east.
The F-117 stealth aircraft might have the radar reflection of a golf ball; however, the golf ball is moving hundreds of miles per hour and if the radar is sensitive enough to detect it, then the Doppler shift filters will remove other slower targets.
Multi-billion pound stealth bombers could be rendered obsolete by a British invention that uses existing mobile telephone masts to detect and track aircraft that were previously invisible to radar.
Stealth fighters and bombers such as the F117, B1 and B2 played key roles in the Gulf and Kosovan wars as they are almost impossible to detect using conventional radar. However, the ease with which the mobile telephone mast system developed at Roke Manor Research at Romsey in Hampshire can be used to detect the aircraft has greatly concerned the military.
Peter Lloyd, head of projects at the laboratory's sensor department, said: "I cannot comment in detail because it is a classified matter, but let's say the US military is very interested." Stealth aircraft, each of which costs at least £1.4 billion, are shaped to confuse radar. A special paint absorbs radio waves, reducing the radar signature to the equivalent of a gull in flight.
The Roke Manor scientists discovered that telephone calls sent between mobile phone masts detected the precise position of stealth aircraft with great ease.
Mr Lloyd said: "We use just the normal phone calls that are flying about in the ether. The front of the stealth plane cannot be detected by conventional radar, but its bottom surface reflects very well."
Mobile telephone calls bouncing between base stations produce a screen of radiation. When the aircraft fly through this screen they disrupt the phase pattern of the signals. The Roke Manor system uses receivers, shaped like television aerials, to detect distortions in the signals. A network of aerials large enough to cover a battlefield can be packed in a Land Rover.
Using a laptop connected to the receiver network, soldiers on the ground can calculate the position of stealth aircraft with an accuracy of 10 metres with the aid of the GPS satellite navigation system.
Mr Lloyd said: "It's remarkable that a stealth system that cost £60 billion to develop is beaten by £100,000 mobile phone technology. It's almost impossible to disable a mobile phone network without bombing an entire country, whereas radar installations are often knocked out of action with a single bomb or missile."
Mr Lloyd said the range of the mobile telephone base station system is classified information, but it would be at least the maximum distance a mobile phone would work from a base station - about 15 miles.
According to military sources, a rough version of a similar system might have been used in Serbia to shoot down an American F117 stealth fighter 40 miles west of Belgrade during the Kosovo campaign. The Serbs fired several missiles into an area they suspected the stealth fighter was flying through.
A big part of the radar visibility problem is that stealth technology was designed to hide planes from high frequency radar commonly used by the former Soviet Union, but stealth planes are readily spotted by low-frequency radar systems. Older radar technology was based on low-frequency and new radar systems include a broad range of both low and high frequency radar. These radar systems are buildable with off-the-shelf parts by virtually any engineering student.
In other words, stealth technology is already obsolete.
(this is from an article dated November, 2000)
If this is not the time to reduce military spending on ineffective technologies, then it seems that time will never come.
According to Maj. Gen. Oldrizhikh Barak, president of Tesla, Tamara uses a so-called "chronometric hyperbolic principle" that with three units spaced “several miles apart” can track aircraft from distances of “about 12 miles”. Also JDW credits the system as being able to track 72 targets concurrently.
Similar to the Tamara but apparently more capable is the Ukrainian "Kolchuga". This system was designed and produced by Topaz (Donetsk). The company has its own design and research facilities and production facilities left over from the former Soviet state-owned defense industry. The Kolchuga is essentially a high-precision, passive, signals- intelligence (SIGINT) system, consisting of four elements: three detection and tracking stations and a command-and-control (C2) element with powerful analysis capabilities. Normally, when the system is deployed in the field, the detection elements are separated by about 60 km from each other, which enables precision location of an air target by tracking it with two or three stations simultaneously. Each station is equipped with a set of rotating antennas, covering the 0.1- to 18-GHz frequency band. The antennas and receivers are able to detect, track, and output data for further analysis. All aircraft emissions - such as non-autonomous navigation aids (e.g., TACAN), radar altimeters and Doppler radars,
do you have any idea how much 32 satellites cost???
did you ever hear of cell phone jammers?? they cost like $400! hell, i can make one for $50 probably!
tell me, why/how does low frequency radars detect stealth planes??
a thought just popped into mind, the Tamara and Kolchuga systems are passive right,
oh yea, btw, do you know how VERA works precisly?
Originally posted by 187onu
1 billion?, my friend a satellite costs like $400 million a piece not to mention to operate it.