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page 30, Russian nature problems
Most active and dangerous karst manifestations for the population and economic objects
are typical for the areas of development of sulfate and haloid rocks in the Ural region and region of territory along Middle Volga (Bashkiriya, Tatartstan, Permskaya, Nizhegorodskaya and Samarskay regions). In the area of karst hazard large towns are located like Perm, Ufa, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Almetievsk, Dzerzhinsk, Sterlitamak, Salavat, Solikamsk. The danger of karst sinks of the earth surface also exists in Kirovskaya region and in Siberia
(Irkutskaya region, Yakutiya, area of the city of Norilsk).
The word ”karst” refers to a type of terrain, usually formed on carbonate rock (limestone and dolomite) where groundwater has solutionally- enlarged openings to form a subsurface drainage system. A mild carbonic acid produced from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, particularly the soil atmosphere, is primarily responsible for the solvent power of groundwater on carbonate rocks.