Originally posted by infinite
are there different types of Schizophrenia?
if so how many and what are there name? ive been studying over the net for a long time now reading everything i can about Schizophrenia
Yes, there are several different types, but some people can exhibit symptoms of more than one. It can also be intermingled with BPD (Manic
Depression), which is called Schizo-Affective Disorder. Schizo-Affective Disorder is my clinical diagnosis. It is very dangerous, and I thank God my
team was able to beat the odds in treating it.
Your Guide To Schizophrenia - WEBMD:
People with this type are preoccupied with false beliefs (delusions) about being persecuted or being punished by
someone. Their thinking, speech, and emotions, however, remain fairly normal.
People with this type often are confused and incoherent, and have jumbled speech. Their outward behavior may be
emotionless or flat or inappropriate, even silly or childlike. Often they have disorganized behavior that may disrupt their ability to perform normal
daily activities such as showering or preparing meals.
The most striking symptoms of this type are physical. People with catatonic schizophrenia are generally immobile and
unresponsive to the world around them. They often become very rigid and stiff, and unwilling to move. Occasionally, these people have peculiar
movements like grimacing or assume bizarre postures. Or, they might repeat a word or phrase just spoken by another person. People with catatonic
schizophrenia are at increased risk of malnutrition, exhaustion, or self-inflicted injury.
This subtype is diagnosed when the person's symptoms do not clearly represent one of the other three subtypes.
What Are the Symptoms of Schizophrenia?
People with schizophrenia may have a number of symptoms involving changes in ability and personality, and they may display different kinds of behavior
at different times. When the illness first appears, symptoms usually are sudden and severe.
The most common symptoms of schizophrenia can be grouped into three categories: Positive symptoms, disorganized symptoms, and negative symptoms.
In this case, the word positive does not mean "good." Rather, it refers to obvious symptoms that are not present in people without schizophrenia.
These symptoms, which are sometime referred to as psychotic symptoms, include:
Delusions are strange beliefs that are not based in reality and that the person refuses to give up, even when presented with factual
information. For example, the person suffering from delusions may believe that people can hear his or her thoughts, that he or she is God or the
devil, or that people are putting thoughts into his or her head.
Hallucinations: These involve perceiving sensations that aren't real, such as seeing things that aren't there, hearing voices, smelling strange
odors, having a "funny" taste in your mouth and feeling sensations on your skin even though nothing is touching your body. Hearing voices is the
most common hallucination in people with schizophrenia. The voices may comment on the person's behavior, insult the person or give commands.
Disorganized symptoms reflect the person's inability to think clearly and respond appropriately. Examples of disorganized symptoms include:
Talking in sentences that do not make sense or using nonsense words, making it difficult for the person to communicate or engage in conversation
Shifting quickly from one thought to the next
Being unable to make decisions
Writing excessively but without meaning
Forgetting or losing things
Repeating movements or gestures, such as pacing or walking in circles
Having problems making sense of everyday sights, sounds and feelings
In this case, the word negative does not mean "bad," but reflects the absence of certain normal behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Negative
Lack of emotion and expression; or emotions, thoughts and moods that do not fit with situations or events (for example, crying instead of laughing
at a joke)
Withdrawal from family, friends and social activities
Lack of motivation
Loss of pleasure or interest in life
Poor hygiene and grooming habits
Problems functioning at school, work or other activities
Moodiness (being very sad or very happy, or having swings in mood)
Catatonia (a condition in which the person becomes fixed in a single position for a very long time)
What Causes Schizophrenia?
The exact cause of schizophrenia is not yet known. It is known, however, that schizophrenia -- like cancer and diabetes -- is a real illness
with a biological basis.
It is not the result of bad parenting or personal weakness. Researchers have uncovered a number of factors that
appear to play a role in the development of schizophrenia, including:
Schizophrenia tends to run in families, which means the likelihood to develop schizophrenia may be passed on from parents
to their children.
Brain chemistry: People with schizophrenia may have an imbalance of certain chemicals in the brain.
They may be either
very sensitive to or produce too much of a brain chemical called dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a substance that helps nerve cells in the
brain send messages to each other. An imbalance of dopamine affects the way the brain reacts to certain stimuli, such as sounds, smells and sights,
and can lead to hallucinations and delusions.
Newer research has found abnormal brain structure and function in people with schizophrenia. However, this type of
abnormality doesn't happen in all schizophrenics and can occur in people without the disease.
Evidence suggests that certain environmental factors, such as a viral infection, poor social interactions or highly
stressful situations, may trigger schizophrenia in people who have inherited a tendency to develop the disorder Schizophrenia more often
surfaces when the body is undergoing hormonal and physical changes, such as those that occur during the teen and young adult years.
Who Gets Schizophrenia?
Anyone can get schizophrenia. It is diagnosed all over the world and in all races and cultures. While it can occur at any age, schizophrenia
typically first appears in the teenage years or 20s.
The disorder affects men and women equally, although symptoms generally appear
earlier in men (in their teens or 20s) than in women (in their 20s or early 30s). Children over the age of 5 can develop schizophrenia, but it is very
rare before adolescence.
How Common Is Schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a relatively common disorder. About 1% of the population, or 2.2 million Americans ages 18 and older, will develop schizophrenia.
How Is Schizophrenia Diagnosed?
If symptoms are present, the doctor will perform a complete medical history and physical examination. While there are no laboratory tests to
specifically diagnose schizophrenia, the doctor may use various tests, such as X-rays and blood tests, to rule out physical illness as the cause of
If the doctor finds no physical reason for the symptoms, he or she may refer the person to a psychiatrist or psychologist, mental health professionals
who are specially trained to diagnose and treat mental illnesses. Psychiatrists use specially designed interview and assessment tools to
evaluate a person for a psychotic disorder. The therapist bases his or her diagnosis on the person's report of symptoms and his or her observation of
the person's attitude and behavior. A person is considered to have schizophrenia if he or she has characteristic symptoms that last for at least six
How Is Schizophrenia Treated?
The goal of treatment is to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia and to decrease the chances of a relapse, or return of symptoms. Treatment may
The primary medications used to treat schizophrenia are called antipsychotics. These medicines do not cure schizophrenia
but help relieve the most troubling symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations and thinking problems.
Older medications used include:
Thorazine, Prolixin, Haldol, Navane, Stelazine, Trilafon and Mellaril. Newer medications used to treat schizophrenia include: Risperdol, Clozaril,
Seroquel, Geodon and Zyprexa.
While medication may help relieve symptoms of schizophrenia, various psychosocial treatments can help with the
behavioral, psychological, social and occupational problems associated with the illness. Through therapy, patients also can learn to control their
symptoms, identify early warning signs of relapse and develop a relapse prevention plan. Psychosocial therapies include: Rehabilitation, which focuses
on social skills and job training to help people with schizophrenia function in the community and live as independently as possible; Individual
psychotherapy, which can help the person better understand his or her illness, and learn coping and problem-solving skills; Family therapy, which can
help families deal more effectively with a loved one who has schizophrenia, enabling them to better help their loved one; Group therapy/support
groups, which can provide continuing mutual support.
Hospitalization: Most people with schizophrenia may be treated as outpatients. However, people with particularly severe symptoms, or those in
danger of hurting themselves or others may require hospitalization to stabilize their condition.
Electroconvlusive therapy (ECT):
This is a procedure in which electrodes are attached to the person's head and a series of electric shocks are
delivered to the brain. The shocks induce seizures, causing the release of neurotransmitters in the brain. This form of treatment is rarely used today
in the treatment of schizophrenia. ECT may be useful when all medications fail or if severe depression or catatonia makes treating the illness
Are People With Schizophrenia Dangerous?
Popular books and movies often depict people with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses as dangerous and violent. This is not true. Most
people with schizophrenia are not violent; more typically, they prefer to withdraw and be left alone.
[ In some cases, however, people with
mental illness who also abuse alcohol or drugs may engage in dangerous or violent behavior.
On the other hand, people with schizophrenia can be a danger to themselves. Suicide is the number one cause of premature death among people
According to the World Fellowship for Schizophrenia and Allied Disorders, 1 in 10 people with schizophrenia commits
suicide and 4 in 10 are known to have attempted suicide.
What Is the Outlook for People With Schizophrenia?
With proper treatment, most people with schizophrenia can lead productive and fulfilling lives.
They are able to live with their
families or in community settings rather than in long-term psychiatric institutions.
Ongoing research on the brain and how brain disorders develop will likely lead to more effective medicines with fewer side effects.
Can Schizophrenia Be Prevented?
There is no known way to prevent schizophrenia.
However, early diagnosis and treatment can help avoid or reduce frequent
relapses and hospitalizations, and help decrease the disruption to the person's life, family and friendships.
(View the full table of contents for the Mental Health Guide
Reviewed by the doctors at The Cleveland Clinic Department of Psychiatry and Psychology.
Edited by Charlotte E. Grayson, MD, WebMD, May 2004.)
I hope this helps. I outlined some key points. I hope you don't mind.