It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
Until the 1980s, most Ethiopianists assumed that a state emerged on the highlands in Eritrea and Tigray as a consequence of a South Arabian (mainly Sabean) colonization of the northern Horn of Africa in the early 1st millennium BC. According to this recon-struction, the South Arabian colonists dominated the local populations, and after the decline of the Kingdom of Saba in Yemen in the 4th–3rd century BC they gave rise to a local kingdom with the capital at Aksum in Tigray. The Aksumite kingdom progressively incorporated the whole region into its territory and laid the foundation of the Christian
kingdom of Ethiopia, which survived until the 1970s. This hypothesis was mainly based on the indisputable evidence of a South Arabian inﬂuence in Eritrea and Tigray in the mid-1st millennium BC (Conti Rossini 1928; Ullendorff 1973; Ricci 1984).
Beginning in the 1960s, this narrative has been challenged by archaeological research,
which suggests that the development of complex societies and states in Tigray and Eritrea was not a linear process of state formation, consolidation and decline, but consisted of at least two distinct trajectories to social complexity, indirectly related to each other, in the Eritrean–Sudanese lowlands and the Eritrean and Tigrean highlands respectively. This process was characterized by a shift in the location of complex societies from the lowlands to the highlands in the early 1st millennium BC (Fattovich 1997b). In this paper, which is largely based on the research my colleagues and I have conductedi n eastern Sudan (Fattovich et al. 1984; Fattovich 1991a,b; Sadr 1991) and northern Ethiopia (Fattovich et al. 2000; Bard et al. 2003; Fattovich 2008,2009; Sernicola 2008), after a short description of the environmental and culture-historical context, the basic evidence of early complex societies and ancient states will be reviewed and a recon-struction of their development will be suggested. An interpretation of this process will be outlined in the conclusions.
A major complication in this investigation is the different terminology archaeologists
working in the northern Horn of Africa adopted to identify and describe the cultural units which appeared in the region through time. The cultural sequence in the Eritrean–Sudanese lowlands was outlined by identifying a major ceramic tradition, divided into temporal phases on the basis of ceramic studies and a series of radiocarbon dates. Within this tradition, different groups of assemblages were distinguished on the basis of speciﬁc differences in the ceramic components (Fattovich et al. 1984, p. 176, Fig. 2). The cultural sequence in Eritrea and Tigray, in contrast, was outlined by distinguishing two main periods of development of the ancient states in the 1st millennium BC and 1st millennium AD: the Pre-Aksumite Period, when a polity characterized by South Arabian elements appeared in the highlands, and the Aksumite Period, corresponding to the development of the Kingdom of Aksum (Anfray 1968). Three archaeological cultures were later described on the basis of the similarities in the artifacts from single sites: the Pre-Aksumite Culture
Four decades have passed since Harlan and Stemler (1976) proposed the eastern Sahelian zone as the most likely center of Sorghum bicolor domestication. Recently, new data on seed impressions on Butana Group pottery, from the fourth millennium BC in the southern Atbai region of the far eastern Sahelian Belt in Africa, show evidence for cultivation activities of sorghum displaying some domestication traits. Pennisetum glaucum may have been undergoing domestication shortly thereafter in the western Sahel, as finds of fully domesticated pearl millet are present in southeastern Mali by the second half of the third millennium BC, and present in eastern Sudan by the early second millennium BC. The dispersal of the latter to India took less than 1000 years according to present data. Here, we review the middle Holocene Sudanese archaeological data for the first time, to situate the origins and spread of these two native summer rainfall cereals in what is proposed to be their eastern Sahelian Sudan gateway to the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean trade.
They conducted trade with the states of Egypt and Kerma and other cultures of Lower and Upper Nubia, as well as with groups further east in the Eritrean-Ethiopian highlands and across the Red Sea into the southern Arabia Peninsula (Fattovich 2010, 2012; Bard and Fattovich 2013).
Here, it is proposed that the Gash Group was the culture, which may have been most responsible for the transference of native African summer rainfall cereals to India by the end of the third millennium BC, as it had contact with other cultures in Arabia, especially coastal and fishing people, who, in turn, would have had contact with the Indian continent further to the east (Boivin and Fuller 2009)
originally posted by: Kakamega
a reply to: Spider879
I have done my research too on this. Yes, this is all the way it happened.
We all came out of Africa. The oldest humanoid fossils are found around the lakes. We changed from apes in to people around Lake Victoria. On the equator there is where it all began in Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania because long enough was required undisturbed by climate change/ice coming down and up from both poles. Volcanic activity brough many mini ice ages and it took a long time for us to evolve into humanoid and ultimately to our sapien status. Who is to know if we are not still evolving. I believe we are. I believe nothing stands still. When it does it is on its way out as a species.
I believe we began walking up the River Nile from the source of the lakes and spread out from there. Civilization began along that route in Cush /Ethiopia and then in Turkey/ Iraq/Egypt and fed back to Nubia/Ethiopia again as provided for by the trade routes. That Levant land corridor between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, every human coming into the rest of the world from our origins had to walk through there.
Rivers and humans!
originally posted by: DeathSlayer
Jews can prove over 5700 years...by name
a reply to: Spider879
the bible tells you everything you need to know. i love the bible! have read it a thousand times! there's nothing about africa or anything like that in it
The sons of Ham:
Put and Canaan.
The sons of Cush
Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteka.
The sons of Raamah:
Sheba and Dedan.
8 Cush was the father[c] of Nimrod, who became a mighty warrior on the earth. 9 He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; that is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.” 10 The first centers of his kingdom were Babylon, Uruk, Akkad and Kalneh, in[d] Shinar.[e] 11 From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir,[f] Calah 12 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah—which is the great city.
10And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; 12And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:
originally posted by: ufoorbhunter
a reply to: Spider879
Ethiopia is a really interesting case study I remember reading somewhere that the average Ethiopian is 1/8 Caucasian. This can be put down to a mass migration of people into Ethiopia of Caucasians sometime in antiquity possibly Greek, Roman or Hebrew (which is a possibility when one considers the Falasha people), or even some group many years earlier than these. All extremely interesting stuff
originally posted by: Spider879Btw I was thinking of doing a thread on the Umayyads getting smoked by the Wagadu aka Ghana, and Christian Nubia, centuries earlier, the French also thwarted their advance, for they almost never lose, but what happened in Wagadu was special, for after their defeat, they renounced Islam, and adopted Wagadu's "pagan" faith