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HAARPnetHAARP will zap the upper atmosphere with a focused and steerable electromagnetic beam. It is an advanced model of an "ionospheric heater." (The ionosphere is the electrically-charged sphere surrounding Earth's upper atmosphere. It ranges between 40 to 60 miles above the surface of the Earth.)
Tropical cyclones are low pressure systems that form in the tropics which, in the southern hemisphere, have well defined clockwise wind circulations with average surface winds exceeding gale force (34 kn). Short period wind gusts are often 40 per cent or more higher than the average wind speed. Severe tropical cyclones have surface winds greater than hurricane force (63 kn).
The circular eye of a tropical cyclone is an area characterised by light winds and often by clear skies. The eye is typically 20 nautical miles (nm) or so across but the eye of a cyclone can range from under 5 to over 50 nm wide.
The eye is surrounded by a dense ring of cloud known as the eye wall which is the area of heaviest winds and seas. Following the passage of the eye the winds shift to the opposite direction with equal force.
Tropical cyclones vary in both size and intensity. Small cyclones such as Chloe (April 1995) may be only 60 nm across whereas large storms, such as Orson (April 1989) and Joan (December 1975), may be up to 300 nm across. Both large and small cyclones can have equally devastating wind speeds near the centre.
Radar and satellite images often show that the eye wall clouds are the innermost coil of a series of spiral rain-band clouds. These bands may extend up to 300 nm from the eye wall and are often associated with thunderstorms and very strong wind squalls.