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By a treaty signed on Apr. 30, 1803, the United States purchased from France the Louisiana Territory, more than 2 million sq km (800,000 sq mi) of land extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. The price was 60 million francs, about $15 million; $11,250,000 was to be paid directly, with the balance to be covered by the assumption by the United States of French debts to American citizens.
1783 The British return Florida to Spain. Numerous people, many of whom have fled the American Colonies during the Revolution, leave Florida for the Bahamas and the West Indies. Florida's first newspaper, The East Florida Gazette, is published at St. Augustine by Williams Charles Wells. He rushes out an "extra" to proclaim the British defeat in the Revolutionary War.
1785-1821 Numerous Spanish-American border disputes occur. Encouraged by the Americans, a republic is proclaimed in northeastern Florida in 1812 by "patriots" who run up their own flag over Fernandina.
1819 American Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and Spanish Minister Luis de Onis reach an agreement finally ratified by both nations in 1821, by which Spain gives the United States title to East and West Florida. The United States relinquishes its claims to Texas, and Spain assigns its rights in the Pacific Northwest to the U.S., leaving ownership of the Oregon Territory to be settled among the United States, Russia, and Great Britain. The United States pays about $4.1 million to Americans in Florida holding claims against Spain.
1821 Andrew Jackson receives the Floridas from Spanish authorities at Pensacola on July 17. He leaves Florida in October and resigns as U.S. Commissioner and Governor of the territories of East and West Florida in November from his home in Tennessee.
In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain. The new nation included the northern provinces, as well as present-day Mexico. Soon, free trade with the United States was established in New Mexico. The government of the Republic of Mexico tried to regulate U.S. trade in New Mexico, which led to increasing resistance among the New Mexicans, many of whom did not feel especially loyal to Mexico.
Between 1821 and 1880, the Santa Fe Trail was primarily a commercial highway connecting Missouri and Santa Fe, New Mexico. From 1821 until 1846, it was an international commercial highway used by Mexican and American traders. In 1846, the Mexican-American War began. The Army of the West followed the Santa Fe Trail to invade New Mexico. When the Treaty of Guadalupe ended the war in 1848, the Santa Fe Trail became a national road connecting the United States to the new southwest territories
That 1843 wagon train, dubbed "the great migration" kicked off a massive move west on the Oregon Trail. Over the next 25 years more than a half million people went west on the Trail. Some went all the way to Oregon's Willamette Valley in search of farmland--many more split off for California in search of gold. The glory years of the Oregon Trail finally ended in 1869, when the transcontinental railroad was completed.
Walker presents us with William Walker (Ed Harris), a qualified doctor, lawyer and journalist who, by the age of 24, sought a more adventurous career. At the request of rubber baron Cornelius Vanderbilt (a cameo by Peter Boyle), in June of 1855 Walker led an army of 58 mercenaries, dubbed 'the Immortals' by romantics stateside, into Nicaragua at the invitation of one of the country's revolutionary factions. Rife with bloodshed, the invasion was eventually a success when his capture of Granada brought an end to the fighting. After being granted recognition by the United States as a new government, William Walker declared himself president of Nicaragua. In the following year however, due to conflict with the man who sent Walker into Nicaragua in the first place, Vanderbilt, and with neighbouring Central American countries concerned by Walker's success, William Walker was overthrown. He attempted another invasion in 1860, but this proved disastrous. He was executed by firing squad at the age of 36.
"We have the conviction that Brazil, India and China can become the biggest economic bloc in the world in the coming decades," said Yogeshwar Varma, India's consul in Sao Paulo.
China became Brazil's second-largest export market in terms of sales this year, up from 12th last year. Brazil sends 35% of its soybean exports to China and Volkswagen AG's Brazil unit exports semi-finished Gol cars to China's expanding market of first-time car buyers. China-Brazil trade during the first nine months totaled $4.9 billion, a 40% rise from a year earlier.
"We expect our exports to Brazil to grow 18% a year during the next five years," said Satish Dhanda, chairman of India's Engineering Export Promotion Council.
"These countries are continental in size with enormous economies of their own," added Amitava Tripathi, the Indian ambassador to Brazil. "The potential for growth is enormous."
A study by Goldman Sachs estimates China and India, along with the U.S., will be the three largest economies in the world by 2050. Goldman senior economist Dominic Wilson also predicts the combined economies of China, India, Russia and Brazil could be larger than the combined economic strength of the U.S., Japan, Germany, France, Italy and the U.K. by 2040.
Analysts say the Brazil and China are helping strengthen a new bloc of developing nations - namely Brazil, Russia, India and China, collectively known as Bric - that flexed its muscles at trade talks in Cancun in 2003.
"They are trying to create a new axis of developing nations that work together, to form a counterweight to the industrialised nations," Latin America analyst Sue Branford said.