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Former Donald Trump business associate Felix Sater did not appear behind closed doors before the House Intelligence Committee on Friday morning because he overslept after he took a sedative, Sater told CNN.
The House Intelligence Committee says it will issue a subpoena for Sater to appear before their panel after he failed to attend a prescheduled closed-door meeting. Sater said the impact of the sedative was stronger than he anticipated. Sater's lawyer, Robert Wolf, had said earlier Friday his client could not appear for health reasons, but a spokesman for the committee said the panel would take action to compel him to testify.
"The Committee had scheduled a voluntary staff-level interview with Mr. Sater, but he did not show up this morning as agreed," the spokesman for the House Intelligence Committee said in a statement. "As a result, the Committee is issuing a subpoena to compel his testimony."
President Nazarbayev, besides being an absolute source of authority in Kazakhstan, has been in close league with the Russian Mafiya for many years. Three of the world’s foremost Russian/Israeli Mafiosi – Arcady Gadamayek, Alexander Mashkevich and Grigori Loutchansky, all have had major deals with Nazarbayev and his family. What the records shows is that Nazarbayev was involved with Arcady Gadamayek during the same time frame that Gadamayek, Lev Leviev and Pierre Falcone (a French criminal) were running their Angola-gate scam. Seymour Hersh reports that there are thousands of illegal oil transactions involving Kazakhstan that never come to public attention – and that the Giffen/Willams Iran swap only came to light because they attempted to “stiff” a partner, (Farhat Tabbah) who then complained to the UK authorities. The facts suggest Nazarbayev may have been part of an Angola deal on the basis of an oil swap, with Halliburton benefiting in both Angola and Kazakhstan. If true, this would implicate Halliburton and Cheney as complicit in multiple frauds, violation of international law and murder in Angola, and that the investigation into Angolan financial fraud would be linked to the same German and Swiss bank accounts that the entire house of cards was built with. An intelligence block and court intervention by Cheney in Kazakhstan may have been necessary to cover-up linkages to additional crimes related to activities in Angola.
This investigation begins with an understanding that Nazarbayev – the key contact for Giffen and Halliburton – had significant Mafiya connections:
1) Nazarbayev’s daughter and son-in-law are employed by the Russian Mafiya at Nordex, a well documented Russian/Israeli Mafiya front:
“By 1994, Nordex's turnover had reached some $3 billion and it had 40 subsidiaries and jointventure firms in the West, and some 100 such affiliates in the former Soviet empire. It employs close to 8,000 people. Among the big names associated with Nordex are Robert Maxwell's sons Kevin and Ian in London, the daughter and son-in-law of President Nursultan Nasarbayev of Kazakhstan, and until recently former Israeli finance minister Yitzhak Moda'i.” [Maxwell - THE SEPTEMBER 11 COMMISSION REPORT Page 102 Mogilevich -Russian Mafia in Bulgaria -5 Guilty in Lukanov Murder –Part 2,Stefan Lemieszewski, December 1, 2003]
The role of Nordex in the larger Bush and Yeltsin conspiracy to defraud the Soviet economy of hundreds of billions is clarified in Section 8.
2) The Prime Minister of Kazakhstan reported that the Russian Mafiya was seeking to intercede to keep Nazarbayev’s name out of the American Kazakhstan scandal, also – while working for Nazarbayev- was receiving Mafiya funds:
“And RFE Turkmen Service reported on the alleged bribe of $100 million made by Loutchansky to Akezhan Kazhegeldin, the prime minister of Kazakhstan.” [www.rferl.org... ]
3) A large portion of the Mobil funds sent to Kazakhstan went to the Mafiya. (See Previous reference: The Price of Oil, Seymour M. Hersh, The New Yorker, 2001-07-09)
4) Nazarbayev was a business associate of Arcadi Gaydamak.
“Gaydamak cultivated relations with Russian leaders and the country's emerging tycoons. His contacts in the post Soviet power structure came to include Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov; the president of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev; the former military chief and later governor of Russia's Karatchevo Cherkesia province, Vladimir Semenov; and the Russian oil magnate Mikhail Khodorkovsky, president of Yukos Oil. In December 2000, Gaydamak was appointed chairman of the Russian Credit Bank, a post that was filled when he stepped down in 2001 by the economics minister and adviser to former President Boris Yeltsin, Aleksandr Livsits.” [The Influence Peddlers, from the 11-part series: Making a Killing, The Business of War, The Center for Public Integrity]
Gaydamak was actively involved, on at least two occasions, in moving Russian and Eastern bloc weapons into Angola in exchange for oil. Gadamayek, Lev Leviev and Pierre Falcone arranged to provide Russian weapons for Angolan oil and conflict diamonds. No one has asked how Russia got the Angolan oil, but there is an extremely high probability that Gadamayek arranged an oil swap with Kazakhstan, and then moved Kazak oil –purchased from US companies - through the Russian pipeline. If true, the key US companies used to facilitate this swap would have been Mobil Oil (ExxonMobil), Phillips and Halliburton. This would allow the US oil companies to sell their landlocked Kazak oil without the need of a pipeline. The Angolan oil was probably swapped for Kazakhstan oil and sold on the Russian market to pay for weapons. Before this could happen, the Russians demanded that the Angola ‘debt’ to Russia be resolved. Hence, Angola had to arrange for a large loan to pay back previous Russian aid loans, with a payback arrangement established somewhere in the range of 30 cents on the dollar. This loan appears to have been arranged by Dick Cheney and Halliburton at the US Export Import Bank, and moved by Marc Rich through Glencore International, through Sonangal (the Angolan treasury), UBS (Gaydamak’s account) on to Bank Agricole Indosuez (formerly BCCI), Unicom Bank (Russia) and various offshore accounts. Along the way, hundreds of millions disappeared. Naturally, part of the deal was large oil and construction contracts for Phillips Oil, Exxon Mobil and Halliburton in Angola. Unfortunately, while the swap may have been legal, the arms portion of the deal was prohibited under International Agreement: “arms purchases by the government and UNITA remained prohibited under the 1991 Bicesse Accords negotiated in Portugal”
Clinton also cited clemency pleas he had received from Israeli government officials, including then-Prime Minister Ehud Barak. Rich had made substantial donations to Israeli charitable foundations over the years, and many senior Israeli officials, such as Shimon Peres and Ehud Olmert, argued on his behalf behind the scenes. Many leading figures of the Jewish world such as Abraham Foxman, the head of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), whose organization had received over $250,000 from Rich over the years also wrote to President Clinton for Rich's pardon. Among other leading Jewish leaders writing to Clinton were Shlomo Ben-Ami, Israel's former foreign minister; Michael Steinhardt, a philanthropist and CEO of Steinhardt Associates; and Rabbi Irving Greenberg, chairman of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council, which oversees the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. Although none of the figures other than Foxman were investigated for their support of Rich's pardon. Clinton later claimed on more than one occasion that Jewish pressure contributed to his decision to pardon Rich. He stated in an interview with New York Times that "Israeli officials of both major political parties and leaders of Jewish communities in America and Europe urged the pardon of Mr. Rich." He made similar comments off camera to CNBC Geraldo Rivera that "Israel did influence me profoundly".
Speculation about another rationale for Rich's pardon involved his alleged involvement with the Israeli intelligence community. Rich reluctantly acknowledged in interviews with his biographer, Daniel Ammann, that he had assisted the Mossad, Israel's intelligence service, a claim that Ammann said was confirmed by a former Israeli intelligence officer. According to Ammann, Rich had helped finance the Mossad's operations and had supplied Israel with strategic amounts of Iranian oil through a secret oil pipeline. The aide to Rich who had persuaded Denise Rich to personally ask President Clinton to review Rich's pardon request was a former chief of the Mossad, Avner Azulay. Another former Mossad chief, Shabtai Shavit, had also urged Clinton to pardon Rich, who he said had routinely allowed intelligence agents to use his offices around the world.
Federal Prosecutor Mary Jo White was appointed by Attorney General John Ashcroft to investigate Clinton's last-minute pardon of Rich. She stepped down before the investigation was finished and was replaced by James Comey, who was critical of Clinton's pardons and of then-Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder's pardon recommendation. Rich's lawyer, Jack Quinn, had previously been Clinton's White House Counsel and chief of staff to Clinton's Vice President, Al Gore, and had had a close relationship with Holder. According to Quinn, Holder had advised that standard procedures be bypassed and the pardon petition be submitted directly to the White House.[Notes 2] Congressional investigations were also launched. Clinton's top advisors, Chief of Staff John Podesta, White House Counsel Beth Nolan, and advisor Bruce Lindsey, testified that nearly all of the White House staff advising the president on the pardon request had urged Clinton to not grant Rich a pardon. Federal investigators ultimately found no evidence of criminal activity.
• Why does a man who wears a scarf to hide his identity announce his name to the public?
• Why is the Muslim executioner’s face covered with a scarf when tradition suggests that Muslim executioners do not wear facial coverings?
• Why would a fanatical Muslim violate other Muslim tradition such as using the left hand to cover a cough, or
• Why would a fanatical Muslim wear a large gold ring?
• Why would five Muslim executioners be dressed in all-black commando style outfits (except for the clean white sneakers), when you rarely see terrorists in uniform in other videos and news clips?
• Why would five Muslim/terrorist executioners be seen to be ‘stocky,’ when every terrorist you’ve ever seen on news video is gaunt?
• Why would there be a general consensus that the dialect spoken by the terrorist in the video was not the same as that of the terrorist identified by the CIA, Al-Zarqawi? (Interestingly, the US Army had reported Al-Zarqawi killed by the bombing of
Falluja, a month earlier.) Even more interesting, their Arabic is heavily accented (Russian, Jordanian, Egyptian). An aside comment in the video - in Russian - has been translated as "do it quickly". The Russian presence becomes an increasingly
important factor as this story emerges. It is not insignificant.
• Why didn’t that same terrorist walk with a limp that the one-legged Al-Zarqawi would have? (Although subsequent news reports contend no one is actually sure if Al-Zarqawi is a double amputee, single amputee or an amputee of any sort.)
• Why would someone stage a public execution, by cutting off the head of a man already dead?
• How does a prisoner of Muslim terrorists come to be wearing an orange jumpsuit, the garb of US prison inmates?
• How does it happen that the white chair shown in the execution video is the same style and color of the chairs shown in videos of Abu Ghraib prison, and the painted wall and floor boards the same color as that of Abu Ghraib? (Interestingly,
subsequent news revelations by U.S. General Karpansky about the prison have identified “secret” holding sites, which allowed Israeli interrogators to keep prisoners out of public site.)
• Why would the Iraqi Police deny holding Berg as a prisoner when the FBI claimed he was an Iraqi Police prisoner?
• Why would the US Military deny holding Berg as a prisoner, when the FBI had notified his parents, after investigating, that Berg was a prisoner of the US military?
• Why would firearms experts state that the AK-47 carried by one of the purported terrorists in the video was actually a “Galil” – an Israeli made, enhanced AK-47. It is very expensive and generally unavailable to Muslim “terrorists.”
Berg told friends he was looking for work in Northern Iraq from a “former customer”. The only telecommunications contracts issued by the US occupation government during that year were to the Israeli firm of Iridium Satellite, whose major customer is the US Department of Defense. This then, was the only possible customer he could have. This also means he worked for Iridium Satellite before going to Iraq. The Mossad’s involvement in the Israeli telecommunications industry has been extensively documented, especially with their involvement in such Israeli firms as Verint (formerly Comverse Infosys) and its infamous wiretap computer programs, and Amdoc, which processes the phone data of all the major US phone companies, coincidentally gaining access to all US phone records. The Iridium Satellite connection is complex, because in addition to it being listed as an Israeli owned firm, Mike Ruppert reports (Crossing the Rubicon, 2004, p128) that Iridium was bought by the Bin Laden group in 1999 from Motorola. The Bin Laden group is controlled by the family of Osama Bin Laden. Cooperation between the Saudi elite and Israeli Mossad is based on a common enemy – the fundamentalist Shi’ites. This cooperation will be demonstrated over and over again throughout this report.
Prior to being in Iraq, Nick Berg developed a relationship with Aziz Kadoory Aziz, also known as Aziz al-Taee. In Iraq, he linked up Aziz again. Aziz talked to Nick on the last day he was seen, and reports that Nick had found transportation to Jordan with “friends.” Aziz has a relevant background. Having left Iraq in 1993, he came to Philadelphia, where he got involved with the Russian Mafiya - a network run by a Soviet immigrant named Valery Sigal. (Sigal was arrested at least three times, once for involvement in distribution of drugs, and once for involvement with stolen computers, and once for selling counterfeit disks.) Aziz met Nick in the US, and Nick used his office in Baghdad. This strange linkage to the Russian underworld will continue to become a highly redundant phenomenon as this investigation unfolds, as many of the Israeli secret service are demonstrated to have roots in the underworld of the former Soviet Union. More curious though than the link to the Russian Mafiya is Aziz’s link to Washington DC based, neo-conservative, pro-Israeli group known as PNAC (Project for a New American Century), and a web site fronting for this group having labeled Nick Berg’s company (Prometheus Methods Tower Service) as a “traitor.” (See Section 4.1: Project for a New American Century) This website had trademarked a list known as the “Traitors List,” where those listed are accused of being anti-American. Nick’s father and Nick’s company were both identified on this list as “Traitors.” The owner of this site would later hire Jeff Gannon/(aka Jeff Guckert) as its Media Director. It seems that shortly after the murder of Nick Berg, Joe Aziz returned to the US to make a living with speaking engagements promoting the official US Government position in Iraq. As part of this promotional tour, Joe Aziz was escorted and introduced in US political circles by Jeff Gannon/Jeff Guckert of the Talon News Service. (Gannon/Guckert would later be exposed as a $200 an hour male prostitute who made over 200 trips to the Whitehouse, according to Secret Service log books at the Whitehouse.)
Shortly after Nick Berg’s company was labeled “traitor” by the PNAC website, Nick was befriended by a convicted felon who traveled to Iraq with Nick and become the last known person to see Nick alive. After Nick’s murder, this same ‘instant business partner’ was then shopped around Washington DC by the same group that had labeled Nick’s company “traitor,” and promoted by a pro-Israeli website. (The role of the PNAC members in the events of September 11 is discussed in detail in later chapters.) Berg’s execution took place in Mosul. Mosul has been a hotbed of Mossad activity for strategic defense reasons. The Mossad has long worked in this region to promote its strategy of a weaker Iraq, created by supporting and fomenting rebellion in the Kurdish northeast. If the Mossad is active in Iraq at all, it will be active in Mosul.
It has been reported by people who knew Nick in Iraq that Nick had the peculiar habit of traveling and working at night. When he was picked up by the Iraqi Police he was held because of "suspicious activity." His residence in Mosul was also suspicious. Staff at AlFanar Hotel in Baghdad apparently told The Associated Press that Berg stayed there for several days until April 10. It was reported that a U.S. Consul contract worker checked at the hotel on 4/14, and staff there did not remember Berg. It seems that a lot of people who knew Nick Berg in his last days also had memory problems and retracted their stories: the police, the military, the hotel staff, and later, the press in Norman, Oklahoma. It would appear that some intelligence organization with influence was “cleaning up” after the execution of Nick Berg.
Prior to 9/11 and his murder in Iraq, Nick Berg spent time in Norman, Oklahoma at the University of Oklahoma. In Norman, this highly ‘tech-savvy’ student supposedly shared his email password with an Arab stranger, possibly even Zacarias Moussaoui himself. The FBI found Nick’s email password (not his email address – his password that allowed him to send emails) amongst the information it confiscated from Moussaoui, an indicted 9/11 conspirator.
"The FBI searched Zacarias Moussaoui's computer after the 9/11 attack and found Nick Berg's email account and password on it. When interviewed by them, Berg reportedly explained that when he was a student at the University of Oklahoma in the fall of 1999, he allowed a stranger on a bus ride to use his email. The stranger turned out to be an associate of Moussaoui, we are told, and gave him Berg's password and email account name. This was reported by CNN and other news organizations. There are several big reasons to be extremely skeptical about this story and to wonder what kind of fools the FBI agents were who bought it. One glaring fact is that, according to his indictment, Moussaoui did not show up in the United States until February of 2001." [Anyone Shopping for a Bridge in Brooklyn? If You Believe Nick Berg's Story to the FBI I'll Sell You One, by Michael Wright]
An interesting side-bar note on this event is that it is possible Nick knew more than one of these “terrorists.”
“Previous reports spoke of but one, met on the bus. Berg's father, however, alluded to more than one. Ewing2000 quotes NewsMax -- not a reliable source -- to the effect that Berg met with Zacarias Moussaoui himself, an assertion conflicting with previous reports that Berg met a Moussaoui associate. More than that: The FBI apparently thinks that Berg"may have known" Moussaoui's two roommates, also tied to Al Qaeda.” [Unidentified web source- type any text into Google to locate source]
The question arises: why was Nick Berg at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma? In Norman OK, one also finds the Norman Flight School, which has also been documented as a gathering location for such terrorists as Mohammed Atta, Marwan al-Shehhi, Nawaf Alhazmi, and Khalid Mohammed. The link between the Norman Flight School and the University of Oklahoma is that students from the Norman Flight School stay in dormitories on the University campus. Students and police have testified to the strange behavior of Mr. Berg – in particular of his sleeping on couches in dormitories around campus. It might be fair to surmise that he was looking for someone by spending time in the dorm lounges. He was also arrested twice by the campus police for trespassing, but these records have disappeared. A couple of other random bits of information put more context to this scenario. The Mossad has been identified as active in Oklahoma City as far back as the Oklahoma City bombing. It is oddly strange that a student who is interested in telecommunication technology transfers to the Norman
campus of the University of Oklahoma? One generally goes to a third college when you want to specialize – there is no Telecommunications Program in Norman.
Is it possible that Nick (or a close associate) was the unknown “white male student” that made reservations on an Oklahoma University library computer terminal, for Flight 77 that crashed into the Pentagon on September 11? Was it possible his two arrests for trespassing on the campus (by Campus Police) were associated with his gathering of intelligence? Given that he spent no time in jail as a repeat offender for burglary or trespassing, should one assume he had ‘highly placed’ protection? (Possibly the President of OSU, Mr, David Boren, former CIA Director.)
Around the same time, Mr. Berg had work installing telecommunications equipment at the Republican National Convention in 2000. Here, Ellis Kitchen, who managed the telecommunications implementation at the convention, would have pulled him into this assignment. Ellis is an interesting person, with virtually no public record. As a public official without a biography, all we know is that he ran special technology projects for the George Bush Whitehouse between 2001 and 2003, and that he arranged ‘secure satellite communications’ for sixty countries during that time. Two themes emerge on this information: high tech satellite communications, and the need to keep a low personal profile.
Even more interesting are the three additional coincidences embedded in this tidbit of information.
1) Mr. Berg had connections in the Bush White ouse when he was executed.
2) In the space of less than a year, Nick Berg was bumping up against international terrorists, the PNAC, the Russian Mafiya, and the elite of the Republican Party security apparatus. The closeness of these two activities provided a much more compelling reason for the FBI to be investigating Nick Berg.
3) The security checks of the Republican National party convention – classified by the Secret Service as a National Security Special Event, who therefore vetted all convention personnel – somehow overlooked the public record that Nick Berg had been twice arrested for trespassing just months before. However, maybe this record was overlooked because of the vouching of George Tenet, Bush’s Director of the CIA. Tenet, (who had extremely close, personal ties to the President of the University of Oklahoma at Norman: David Boren - a former CIA director himself,) was in a position to provide a personal reference and introduction for Mr. Berg.
Mr. Berg was the supposed owner of an unregistered, non-existent company called Prometheus Methods Tower Service. The fact that his company was not registered anywhere is not a big issue in-and-of-itself. A lot of consulting entrepreneurs do not register as a company. The company name also seems fairly benign: “Prometheus Methods.” The very interesting aspect of this clue, however, is the company name. ‘Prometheus Methods’ refers to one thing only – an extremely sophisticated computer program for solving extremely complex problems, using parallel processing. Again, this would be a benign fact until you learn that the creator of Prometheus Methods works for Sandia International, a weapons research firm, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, and a significant player in research and development for US national security. The Prometheus Methods technology is based on MPI programming, which simplifies the generation of code generation for running programs on multiple processors, creating in effect, a large supercomputer. Also, seemingly benign and unrelated, is the Mossad connection to spy ware distributed through its Israeli companies Odigo (instant messaging), Zone Labs and Cydoor (maker of Kazaa, and probably contributing to the core code of Grokster as well). By planting spy ware and backdoors on over 50 million home computers, the Mossad has created the foundation for the largest wide area network computational grid on the globe.
A documented example of this is Zone Labs. Zone Labs is an Israeli owned (Checkpoint Technologies Software Company) provider of “security software product” for home PCs. “A Perfect Spy? It seems that ZoneAlarm Security Suite has been phoning home, even when told not to. Last fall, InfoWorld Senior Contributing Editor James Borck discovered ZA 6.0 was surreptitiously sending encrypted data back to four different servers, despite disabling all of the suite’s communications options. Zone Labs denied the flaw for nearly two months, then eventually chalked it up to a “bug” in the software -- even though instructions to contact the servers were set out in the program’s XML code. A company spokesmodel says a fix for the flaw will be coming soon and worried users can get around the bug by modifying their Host file settings. However, there’s no truth to the rumor that the NSA used ZoneAlarm to spy on U.S. citizens.” [ZoneAlarm phones home, Apple throws Intel a bone Does crabby columnist deserve a raise, or is he just being shellfish? Robert X. Cringely® infoworld, January 13, 2006]
The appropriate question is, how does an entrepreneur who repairs communication towers happen to be familiar with a truly obscure algorithm that has no publicly known connection to tower communications, but is a key component of the national intelligence arsenal?
One Lockheed Martin director described him as a one-man marketing department. Others whose deals he helped facilitate included the British firms Marconi and Westland Helicopters. As his reputation spread, Khashoggi’s commission rates increased to as much as 15 per cent, on deals worth hundreds of millions of dollars.
The group which probably planned and set-up the attack on the World Trade Center was most likely a mix of Russian/Israeli Mafiya, ex-KGB and Israeli secret service, with the assistance of David Kimche (Mossad agent), Meir Dagan (head of the Israeli Mossad), Adnan Khashoggi and Sheikh Kamal Adham (former head of Saudi Intelligence), Richard Armitage and Richard Secord. Kimche, Armitage and Secord are the only field intelligence operatives identified in the world press as having field management responsibility for Al Qaeda mercenaries. Khashoggi is documented to have coordinated similar types of false “terrorist” attacks in Russia, with the participation of CIA and Israeli agents working with Chechen Mafya (with its strong linkages to the Yeltsin Family.)
Adnan Khashoggi: whose Azerbaijan banks "played a big part in the formation of terrorist camps and in the opening of laboratories for developing chemical and bacteriological weapons in Nagornyy Karabakh” was a major mover of illegal gold; major investor and founder in Barrick; was a major investor in Oryx (financial backer of Huffman Aviation- the flight school that provided training to eleven 9/11 hijackers); and business partner with General William Lyon – founder of diploma mills which are linked to the access to the US for two hijackers. Khashoggi also is linked to the funding of the “9/11 Truth Movement” in an attempt to monitor and control civilian inquiries into the events surrounding 9/11.
George Bush Sr., who (according to several eyes witnesses) authorized the Iran-Contra and October Surprise operations (although Congressional investigators concluded he was not involved), initiated the US covert operations in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan, authorized the creation of the illegal Durham/Brady Bonds which went secretly to Russia, and authorized the assignment of $10 billion in un-mined gold reserves to Barrick. He later sat on the Advisory Board of Directors for Barrick.
. Members of the US group that arranged for the September 11 cover-up most likely used the attack for multiple purposes related to financial gain and obstruction of justice, and set the timing of the attack to resolve a major financial fraud involving $240 billion in securities backed by illegal gold holdings (Durham/Brady Bonds).
c)The individual that most likely acted as intermediary between Iran-Contra syndicate and the bankers was Edgar Bronfman. Bronfman is a significant owner of Barrick and TrizecHahn, and President of the World Jewish Congress (WJC). Acting in the role of President of the WJC, Bronfman negotiated the terms and conditions of the release of the Holocaust gold from the Swiss banks in 1998. It is hypothesized that as part of his negotiations, he was asked by the bankers to facilitate a termination of multiple US federal and NY investigations into Swiss banks. His negotiations brought an immediate end to US Department of Justice and US Congressional pressure to investigate Marcos gold accounts in the Swiss banks, Swiss holdings of Holocaust gold, and Philippine actions against the Swiss for holding the Marcos gold. An investigation of the Marcos accounts (and tracing the final disposition of the gold) would have exposed a broader money and gold-laundering scheme, which would have resulted in further exposures of crimes by the Russian/Israeli Mafiya (in particular, the “Yeltsin Family”) and the Iran-Contra syndicate.
d) The plan proposed by Bronfman was probably provided to him by David Kimche, one of the initial Israeli intelligence agents that in 1980 proposed the October Surprise plan to prevent the release of US hostages by the Ayatollah Khomeini. That plan subsequently resulted in a series of IranContra deals to covertly fund pro-US revolutionary activity in Iran and Nicaragua. Kimche was actively working with Richard Secord and Richard Armitage (all three were involved in Iran-Contra scandal) in Azerbaijan, with multiple Central Asian Intelligence organizations, at the time the decision to attack the WTC was made.
e) The plan proposed by Bronfman provided for the termination of investigations by various agencies of the US government into various Swiss accounts and Deutschebank transactions involved in money and gold laundering. This plan would require the destruction of the entire World Trade Center, which housed the investigative offices of the FBI, SEC, IRS, Secret Service, Department of Defense, US Customs, and bank records for the Export-Import bank, Deutsche Bank, and the investigative arm of the New York State Tax Department. Bronfman, as a major investor in Barrick, stood to benefit directly from a cessation of these investigations (and in his case, the FBI investigation into gold price fixing). The Bush family, as well as the Russian Mafiya, would benefit as well from the termination of these investigations, all linked. Later, Bush intelligence operatives would add the Pentagon to the list of targets, to destroy the Office of Naval Intelligence which was also engaged in a major investigation of money laundering most likely related to the Bank of New York/Russian Mafiya money laundering scandal.
f) The detailed plan to crash commercial airliners into the World Trade Center was actually created in 1976 by the C-Battery 2/81st Field Artillery, US Seventh Army in Europe. It would have been provided to Kimche, most likely, by Richard Armitage, who worked in the Defense Intelligence Agency from May 1975 to November 1976, and went on to covert CIA operations.
There was a diversified group of American, Canadian, Russian, Swiss and German business executives (bankers and traders) and government officials that allowed the attack on the World Trade Center to happen, and prevented the true story of what happened from being told, for the purposes of financial gain and protection from prosecution for complicity in illegal gold laundering activity and the fraudulent sale of gold backed securities. Under Federal law 18 U.S.C. 371 –Conspiracy Statute, they are equally guilty as if they had initiated the decision. This group includes, but is not limited to Adnan Khashoggi; Kamal Adham; George Bush Sr.; Tye Burt- former Chairman of Deutsche Bank Canada and Deutsche Bank Alex Brown Securities Canada; Otto Pohl, former President of the German central bank (Bundesbank) and chief officer of the International Bank of Settlements and IMF; Edgar Bronfman and Mayo Shattuck, who left his position as CEO of Deutschebank America on September 12, 2001 and is financial advisor to Khashoggi and Bronfman. The circumstances leading to this conclusion are:
1. There are between 6,000 and 280,000 tonnes of illegal, stolen gold stored in bullion banks throughout the world. This gold needs to be laundered. This gold has been stolen from the national treasuries of the Philippines, Soviet Union, France, and Czechoslovakia. There are numerous sources that identify [u[George Bush Sr. and Adnan Khashoggi, with Ferdinand Marcos, as extensively involved in the theft of the Philippines treasury.
2. Commodity experts that watch the gold market have made claims that significant, inexplicable amounts of gold were showing up in the market throughout the 1990s. These increases are attributed to ‘gold futures’ sales - in the absence of any other explanation.
3. There has been no known formal investigation into the possible laundering of this gold other than possibly the FBI investigation buried in the World Trade Center. This investigation was linked to the GATA/Howe lawsuit against the bullion banks, including the Deutsche Bank.
4. A significant group of powerful individuals, with demonstrated links to the movement of illegal gold, have been directly involved in the creation of a gold producing company, which was in a court battle over the legality of some of its trades. (It resulted in a sealed agreement in January of 2006.) A significant group of these individuals have a history of connections to money laundering activity. These groups include George Bush Sr., Adnan Khashoggi, Khalid bin Mahfouz and Edgar Bronfman.
5. The success of this company in gold hedging defies expert industry expert comprehension. The company has been extremely successful mining land that industry experts thought was “doubtful” in its potential. These inexplicable conditions could be explained under a hypothesis of gold laundering.
6. Two of the individuals (Khashoggi and Mahfouz) that started, controlled and owned significant portions of this gold company are the same people that started, controlled and owned a company that staged and ‘trained’ eleven of the 9/11 hijackers, who were involved in the destruction of the World Trade Center. This ‘terrorist’ event effectively ended the FBI investigation of global gold trades this company was involved in.
German, Swiss, Russian and Saudi financial executives, combined with their U.S. business partners (Carlyle Group) initially requested the attack on the World Trade Center for the purposes of:
1. Stopping a series of on-going FBI and other federal agency investigations which were in the process of exposing multi billion dollar, illegal, gold and money laundering activities and securities fraud. Tracking transactions into and out of accounts of individuals associated with these investigations would have exposed the
• illegal retention of the national bullion treasuries of the Soviet Union, the Philippines, France, Czechoslovakia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Angola and more, as well as
• the major participation of the “Bush Family” in the Bank of New York/Russian Mafiya money-laundering scandal, with its ultimate source of funding in the Bardy/Durham bond fraud of September 11, 1991;
2. Destroying potentially incriminating Deutschebank and US Export-Import bank records and investigative reports (FBI, SEC, Secret Service, IRS, US Customs, NY State Tax Auditors) associated with those gold and money laundering and securities fraud activities;
3. Enhancing their competitiveness and short term profitability in the European investment banking market; and
4. Revenge against “United States and its economy” for past economic transgressions against the German banking industry.
The pinpointed targets of the 9/11 hijackers were the North Tower (FBI offices on floors 23 and 24 and the Cantor Fitzgerald offices), Building 7 (various Federal investigative agencies), the Pentagon (Office of Naval Investigation), and the South Tower (Eurobrokers and the NY State Tax Investigation Department). Flight 93, delayed for 40 minutes at the gate and downed in Pennsylvania, was probably intended for Building 7. Building 6 (US Customs) was destroyed by an internal explosion. These buildings were targeted because they housed the investigative offices and evidence of multiple investigations into money and gold laundering and securities fraud.
The hypothesis that the Administration of President Bush “initiated” the attack on the World Trade Center as an excuse for war is based on a set of clues that suggest the President - knowing the attack would happen - planned the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq in advance. This would require that the President, like the authors of the Project for a New American Century, believed that a “Pearl Harbor” event was a necessary condition to invade Afghanistan and Iraq. What will be demonstrated in this report is that the WTC did not have to be destroyed for the Central Asian pipeline deals in Afghanistan and Azerbaijan to be successful. However, the bribes and money laundering behind these pipeline deals were “illegal,” and the investigative evidence pointing to the money laundering was the target of the attack on the WTC. While the actual illegal trading and bribing activity leaves very little physical evidence, money always leaves an audit trail, and that trail was being tracked and documented in Building Seven, the North Tower and Buildings Four and Six– hence the need to destroy the entire World Trade Center.
In a manner highly reminiscent of the investigation of the BCCI bank fraud, once the bank’s criminal activities were exposed, bank records in England were destroyed in multiple warehouses by no less than seven separate fires, and sixteen material witnesses were murdered.
“There's a lot about BCCI that outsiders will never know. Once the investigations started, there were seven fires in the fireproof London warehouses where BCCI stored records. In one of them, four firemen were killed.” [BCCI: The Case that Kerry Cracked, Lucy Komisar]
“The Manhattan D.A. who closed the American branch (of the BCCI) announced that 16 witnesses had died in the course of investigating the bank's entanglements in covert operations of the CIA, arms smuggling to Iraq, money laundering and child prostitution.” [The False Memory Alex Constantine, Copyright © January, 1996]
“There were a lot of BCCI documents in Panama that disappeared because they would have implicated too many people.” [Outlaw Bank: BCCI, Jonathan Beaty and S.C. Gwynne, Random House, New York, 1993, p.79]
The individuals involved in the destruction of the warehouses of BCCI evidence and the destruction of the WTC are same the individuals linked to the Central Asian money laundering crimes as well as the theft of Russian and Philippine gold treasuries. Understanding that the invasion of Afghanistan was not a necessary condition for the securing of the pipelines allows the analysis to entertain other theories as to why these individuals felt the need to murder thousands of people in the WTC attacks.
Events in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, and related activities in Angola are generally viewed as independent scenarios, but should not be. When approached from the perspective of four separate but linked operations, there is a consistent pattern that is not obvious when analyzing these events one at a time.
• Each operation involves brutal warlords or dictators controlling access to oil.
• Each operation includes reports of US agents trying to legally control access to that oil by aiding and abetting these dictators and warlords with bribes and IMF loans.
• Each operation involves the provision of weapons, mercenaries and bribes in exchange for mineral, oil or pipeline rights.
• Each operation involves complex money laundering schemes, involving billions of U.S. taxpayer dollars provided by the US Export-Import Bank and the IMF.
• Each operation involves Haliburton, Saudi oil and American oil companies.
• Each operation involves money flowing through the Deutschebank and/or the Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS.)
What is generally found to be missing in the reports on these operations are answers to the questions: “Who is providing the weapons?” and “Where is all the money going?” The answers are always the same. The Russian/Israeli Mafiya provides the weapons; the German/Swiss Banking Cartel moves and hides the money (for very significant profit), and the western oil companies claim the oil revenues. There are generally a number of smaller banks and other financial intermediaries involved, but the final resting place of the stolen treasuries generally appears to be a solid bank with vaults deep in the Swiss Alps.
The provision of illegal weapons around the globe is heavily dominated by the Israeli/Russian Mafiya, who source their weapons from former Soviet regimes as well as Israeli firms. Even when the US intelligence agencies wanted weapons for the Contra rebels, they turned to Russian/Israeli traders (Russians seeking protection from international law in Israel, with a good participation by indigenous Israelis.) With the arms merchants, comes the same banking network, the same German banking cartel, generally fronted by the Deutsche Bank. However, and all too often, news reporters and investigators lose track of most of the money. That is because the real profiteers are the bankers, with the old bloodlines of Europe. If every banker that touches the money takes 2-5%, and the crime requires six or seven fixers, the money disappears fast. (The real pay-off to the bankers comes when these dictators and war lords die – leaving secreted accounts in the hands of the bankers.) In that respect, the examples discussed later (Angola and the Bank of New York) are illustrative in that it generally takes at least four or five financial companies operating as middlemen to launder the money, not to mention the bonuses to the buyer and seller. This is probably why Enron and Halliburton have set up so many offshore subsidiaries in the Cayman Islands – to cut out the middleman and circumvent US and international law. (Enron was reported to have over 300 Cayman
subsidiaries, Halliburton at least twenty.)
“Cheney's leadership also saw a dramatic increase in subsidiaries located in offshore tax havens—at least 20 subsidiaries in the Cayman Islands, alone. —Laura Peterson
“Halliburton is now being investigated by the Securities and Exchange Commission for Enron-style accounting practices that took place while Cheney was CEO.” www.nytimes.com...
“Halliburton has also provided oil services to Iran in contravention of U.S. sanctions by operating through a foreign subsidiary based in the Cayman Islands which opened an office in Tehran in 2000.”—Laura Peterson
These oil and gas operations, however, help expose a larger criminal pattern. In this pattern, the leaders of these countries (or in the case of Afghanistan, tribes) allow their national treasuries to be siphoned-off in an array of financial maneuvers abetted by large corporations and international scam artists, and hide this money with the expertise of the German/Swiss Banking Cartel. This pattern is exposed in Germany, the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Angola, and Philippines and with all probability, the US.
The United States has become one of the go-to destinations for the creation of anonymous shell companies, allowing human traffickers, terrorists, money launderers, sanctions evaders, kleptocrats, and other criminals to promote criminal activities here in the United States undetected. To make matters worse, banking laws designed to detect and combat money laundering and illicit financial activities haven’t been updated comprehensively in decades. As a result, our financial institutions are spending more money than ever before to adhere to outdated compliance rules, while regulators and law enforcement personnel are stuck fighting 21st century threats with 20th century tools. As senators committed to protecting U.S. national security, upholding the rule of law, and promoting efficient government, we believe the time is right to reform our laws for combating illicit finance. We’ve worked together to draft bipartisan legislation that would require U.S. shell companies to report their true owners so that law enforcement can better track and penalize illicit criminal activities.
he United States is ranked second-worst in the world for its high levels of secrecy and offshore activities, according to the Tax Justice Network’s Financial Secrecy Index. Illicit finance has become such a problem that the Financial Action Task Force (FATF)—the premier international organization for combating money laundering—recently identified the United States as an outlier among developed nations for failing to disclose and track shell company ownership.
“Catherine: I was hired by the first Bush administration to help clean up $100 billion sized financial frauds. These had to do with Iran Contra, the S&L crisis, BCCI and the HUD scandal. I was there for 18 months…we've seen the government readily permit the transfer of Enron Online -- which I believe was a money-laundering and slush fund operation -- to the Swiss bank, UBS, one of their largest creditors. So now it's very possible that a great deal of information that would be needed for a proper investigation is under the protection of the privacy laws of a Swiss bank. And by the way, it's very interesting, and perhaps quite significant, to note that the newest Board member of UBS, the bank that purchased the Enron Online operation, is the former chairman of Arthur Anderson. Enron was also permitted to have the gold bullion and gold derivatives trading operation transferred. Understand that to be able make these two transfers, as quickly and quietly as they were, in the middle of an initial bankruptcy filing, was nothing short of miraculous based on what I'm told by bankruptcy attorneys. In combination with the shredding, it permitted the coordination of cover-up of two things: money laundering and a lot of financial fraud between the banks and the entity itself.” [Enron: An Anatomy of a Cover-Up. Dennis Bernstein's interview with Catherine Austin Fitts, 3/12/2002]
“We had a huge amount of money disappear from the accounts of all these federal agencies: General Accounting Office (GAO) (and Inspector General) reports and testimony document that $59 billion was missing from HUD in fiscal 1999, and $17 billion was missing in fiscal 1998, and they refused to say how much was missing in fiscal 2000. So I was trying to figure out how you could launder hundreds of billions of dollars (stolen from the federal government) starting in the fall of 1997, because that is so much money that you can't just run it (launder it) through a pizza restaurant. You are talking about a huge amount of money and you are talking about something that JP Morgan, Lockheed, DynCorp and Arthur Anderson would have to be part of.” [Enron: An Anatomy of a Cover-Up. Dennis Bernstein's interview with Catherine Austin Fitts, 3/12/2002]
“So, in the fall of 1997 there was an explosion of revenues (at Enron Online), with nobody being able to explain where the revenues came from. They just say it's very complicated, it's "derivatives," you know. Well that's ridiculous. In my experience, if you can't explain something, then something is wrong. So I'm looking for the missing money: there is over $3.3 trillion missing from federal government agencies over a 3-year period, and my big question is, “Is Enron the laundromat," and is that why Congress is covering this up?”
“Fitts: As far as I'm concerned, Ken Lay was just the lead patsy. We're talking about a top ten Fortune 500 company with annual revenues exceeding $100 billion---which suddenly fell off the map. What the Enron CEO's made was nothing compared to what the inside-trading investors made---both with corporate assets liquidated out before the implosion or in the pump and dump of stocks. And many of these investors look to be from the same syndicate that I saw playing the Iran-Contra/S&L game in the eighties…. in testimony already, former Chief Accountant of the SEC, Lynn Turner, offered that these banks and investment banks "shopped their structured finance vehicles'' around to other corporations. Turner indicated that in one case where the SEC was able to intercede on his watch, a bank had people sign privacy agreements as not to divulge details of the scheme proposed to regulators and others.” [The Real Deal About Enron (Part 1), Catherine Austin Fitts, Sanders Research Associates 4/3/2003]
As the Soviet Union faded into history in 1991, the region struggled - as it still does – with different groups competing for control of the resources. Those historic struggles of area ethnic groups were re-surfaced, and added to that mix were elements of Russian/Israeli organized crime, US covert intelligence and Saudi investors. These latter two groups were simply “buying” their way into a territory opening itself up to market forces – much like one buys distribution access to retail in New York City by paying tribute to the Mafia. While US and Saudi oil companies were “buying” access to Caspian oil, many other western companies were being forced out of the region. It was reported that 35 Canadian businesses had been forced to evacuate Russia as a result of Mafiya pressures during the late 1990s. Two companies managed to establish a rapprochement with the Mafiya: one of them was Barrick Gold. Also, from Barrick’s Annual Report, one discovers that Barrick had leveraged for itself a significant position in Kazakhstan, in a partnership with Celtic Resources Holdings Limited PLC:
“We have an equity position in Celtic and have back-in rights to participate on an exclusive basis for up to 50% in any assets acquired in Kazakhstan and to certain other assets including the Nezhdaninskoye project.” In connection with Barrick’s plan to develop a business unit in Russia and Central Asia, Barrick acquired a 10% equity interest in Highland Gold Mining Ltd. (“Highland”) in October 2003. In January 2004, Barrick acquired an additional equity interest, bringing its total equity interest to approximately 14% at December 31, 2004, in Highland and certain participation and other rights with respect to properties in Russia. In January 2005, Barrick acquired a 9% equity interest in Celtic Resources Holdings PLC (“Celtic”). In addition, Barrick acquired additional subscription rights for shares in Celtic and certain rights with respect to a property in Russia and certain participation rights with respect to properties in Kazakhstan.” [Barrick Annual Information Form, December, 2004]
Barrick’s singular ability to maintain a presence in Russia and Central Asia, when all legitimate companies are being forced out, or taken over, suggests they have a special relationship with the ex-KGB Russian/Israeli Mafiya. This relationship is best explained by the earlier hypotheses of this report that Barrick may be a major gold laundering operation used to launder thousands of tons of gold stolen from various treasuries, including those of the former Soviet Union. It can be further explained by the “partnership” between Barrick and Nelson Gold, noted in the Barrick annual report. Nelson Gold is a subsidiary of Nelson Resources – run by Nazarbayev’s son-in-law, and probably successor to Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan. Nazarbayev will later be shown to be extensively involved in money laundering and illegal oil deals, with this same cast of suspicious characters.
For the moment, please assume the actual targets were the three largest equity banking firms of Merrill Lynch & Co., Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co (MSDW), and Goldman Sachs – filling 22, 22, and 15 floors of the WTC respectively. (Goldman Sachs had a significant presence in the WTC, but the instigators did not take “put options” on Goldman Sachs.) In the course of a normal investigation, one might ask – who stood to gain from the direct disruption of these financial giants. These giants, along with Citibank and JP Morgan Chase represented the five major threats to the German banking market, and as a result the Dresdner Bank (a subsidiary of Allianz) and Deutsche Bank stood to gain from a temporary disruption of the capabilities of Merrill Lynch, MSDW, Goldman Sachs, Citibank and JP Morgan Chase.
A brief bit of background on these two German banks, and the German banking industry in general, is relevant. Banks have created a bank-center culture, with banking centers created in New York, London, Paris, Tokyo and Frankfurt. These centers have become fairly ‘incestuous,’ swapping employees and favors. These centers represent common interests and policies generally based on their country’s primary currency values. Today, Paris and Frankfurt are creating a unity around the Euro, and incorporating Basel into the Frankfurt center, while London and New York operate around the dollar.
During World War II, the two German banks represented the primary banking powers in Nazi Germany. There are three events that occurred during the last 50 years which have provided a basis for resentment on their part with the American banking community. When the Allies took over Germany, the British generally left the banking structure in their zone as they found it. The Americans, however, broke up these banks into 30 autonomous regional banks and put in place a number of regulations to prevent these banks from ever re-establishing themselves as major global powers. Those rules, however, were ultimately circumvented, and the banks manage to re-establish themselves in the 1960’s.
Just as these banks were re-emerging as global players, the Richard Nixon administration unilaterally took the dollar off the Bretton Woods System of Fixed Exchange Rates, which then created an advantage for the American banks and economy that has taken the rest of the world several decades to recover from. It seriously undermined the German competitiveness in the export market, which took the Germans years to recover from. The advantages that came with the move off the Bretton Woods agreement – in terms of enhanced perceived value of the dollar– has given a global advantage to the New York bank center for almost two decades.
Over the next three decades, Europe was able to muscle its way back to a position where the banks were almost on par with New York. Together, the two banks represented a coordinated and balanced global strategy: Deutsche Bank had 21 of its 28 foreign affiliates in Africa and Asia, Dresdner had 16 of its 21 affiliates in Latin America.
That being said, the German banking group, after years of planning a comeback and revenge, was anticipating a collapse of the US economy within a month of the date of the WTC attack. The chief economic strategist for Dresdner Wasserstein was publicly predicting a major crash in the American stock-market for that same time-frame, publicly covering Dresdner Wasserstein’s (and other Germans’) retreat out of dollar based assets, when other forecasters saw little reason to move away from the dollar at that time.
So far, one might say the German banks had specific motivation for seeing a collapse of the US bank challengers:
1. $23 Billion in banking revenues at risk to American competition
2. seething resentment due to U.S. attempts to destroy them after WWII and take unfair advantage of them in the 1970’s.
3. There is a third reason. At stake was –and remains – the discovery of hundreds of billions of dollars of stolen national treasuries held in the German/Swiss vaults. This discovery was imminent, based on U.S. investigations under way in the late 1990s.
Motive, however, is not enough. One needs to be able to demonstrate that these “old men of Europe” had the means and connections to execute this deed. These old men that virtually rule the world banking environment needed to be able to reach deep into the Mossad, and finance the attack on the American equity banking establishment. Once the dark side of the Mossad was involved, its criminal elements used it’s pre-knowledge of the attacks to benefit from this knowledge by manipulating the stock market across thirty eight stocks. They used the Deutsche Bank subsidiary of AB Brown, and made investments in exchanges that were weak in control: Canada. (As a small historic note, Alex Brown Deutschbank is the result of a merger between the Deutschebank and Alex Brown Investments, long associated with the Harriman and Bush families across four generations.)
“The contention that the destruction of the WTC was used to destroy evidence contained on the 23rd and 24th floors of the North Tower is now incontrovertible. …Here is evidence supplied by the Head of Security of the World Trade Center on network television indicating that the floors used by the FBI (22nd, 23rd and 24th floors) of the North Tower -- 70 floors below the crash-bombing impact -- had been devastated and reduced to debris. This same Head of Security himself dug through the debris to save persons who were trapped there. It was on these floors that the evidence and investigation briefs on two highly important cases were being stored:
1) The case against Mobil Oil and James Giffen on illegal oil swaps between Iran and Kazakhstan (at that time before a New York grand jury as described in great detail by Seymour Hersh in the July 9 New Yorker magazine);
2) The evidence in the investigation of Gold Price Fixing which stemmed from charges brought against Alan Greenspan, Morgan & Company and Goldman Sachs
At noon I received a phone call from New England from Steve. He was reviewing recorded footage of coverage of the destruction of the WTC on NBC's program "48 Hours." Steve has reviewed the footage many times and taken detailed notes. I took notes at my computer as he spoke. After the south tower collapsed, men went up to the 22nd floor of the WTC and "dug" someone out of the "rubble" he found there. It is known that these floors contained the New York FBI offices. Peter Jennings actually did a two-day network news story on the effects of the destroyed evidence and files on American financial crime investigations around the world. The 48 Hours anchor was interviewing the Head of Security of the WTC about the evacuation. He had received a call, after the South Tower was down, from the Port Authority's Command Center on the 22nd floor asking for rescue. The Head of Security himself traveled to that floor in the company of a NY Fireman where they found the offices devastated to the point that they had to "tunnel through debris" to "dig out" the two or three Port Authority workers who were trapped there. All of this happened 73 floors below crashbombing impact.” [WTC Attack Destroyed Criminal Evidence , Dick Eastman, www.conspiracyplanet.com..., 10/26/2001]
Eastman’s report is substantiated by other reports from CBS News and an individual chronicler of events. These reports suggest that while one drama unfolded throughout the WTC conplex, another drama was unfolding on the 22nd Floor of the North Tower.
"... George Tabeek, who was the Trade Center's security manager... got a call that three Port Authority workers were trapped in a command center on the 22nd floor. He informed a fire battalion chief that he was going up to rescue them. The chief assigned a group of firefighters, led by Lt. Andy Desperito. The men walked up to the 22nd floor. Tabeek didn’t know that a second jet had just struck Tower 2. When they reached the 22d floor of Tower 1, Desperito and his men tunneled through the debris and opened up a path for those trapped inside. ..."[www.cbsnews.com...
"...we hit a major bottleneck as we got close to the 24th. In fact, we came to a total standstill. I could see that the holdup was due to the fact that people from the 24th were trying to make their escape into the stairwell too. White smoke seeped in slowly through the open door, and it was getting harder to breathe in there by the minute. I looked around at the pure concrete surrounding us. God, we've got to get the hell out of here... if this place caves, we're in big trouble. I was counting the minutes. When we finally got to the door at the 24th, two women were holding the door open and screaming as they looked down the hall. Morbid curiosity got the best of me. I peeked my head through the door and saw that ceiling had caved in from the above floors. It looked like a tornado had come through the place. [groups.yahoo.com..."From: email@example.com, "Date: Mon Sep 17, 2001 5:25 pm , "Subject: Personal Account]
Moreover, it was reported that there were two FBI agents in that area and on Floor 22 of the North Tower until the end. This reinforces the argument there was a “secreted” FBI office in that vicinity.
"An FBI agent told Mr. Cho his job was done that he too needed to escape. Pumping with adrenaline, Mr. Cho ignored the warning. Instead, he helped the agent clear floors. Then, at 9.50am, the south tower collapsed, taking thousands with it. When the FBI agent received a call saying their tower (North) would soon also fall, Mr. Cho joined the mad rush down the final 20 flights....[special.scmp.com...]
"Sometime around 9:30 I noticed the pedestrian traffic slowing down and decided it was time to get to the SCC. I managed to climb the 22 flights of stairs with only two short breaks and arrived at the 22nd floor about 9:45. I thought that was pretty good for a 67-year-old "geezer." A few fire fighters were there to challenge my presence, and then helped me move more of the debris away from the door and assist me in getting to the sally port without falling through the now-open elevator shaft. Evidently, this wall had exploded into the corridor and was the stuff that had blocked the staff from exiting the SCC. When I got into the SCC, I found several of my co-workers, including George Tabeek (manager of security operations), Tom Comerford (information services project manager - system), Fire Lt. Andy Desperito (who later died when the North Tower collapsed), an unidentified FBI agent and my SCC staff. We all conferred on the status of the SCC, the two towers, and the various security and building management systems." [www.capnhq.gov...]
The pattern of increased death in the vicinity also reinforces Eastman’s contention that area was “targeted.” In the vicinity of the blast was Empire Blue Cross/Blue Shield, a company that lost eleven people: nine employees and two consultants. They have no explanation for the deaths.
“At Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield, nine employees and two consultants died. Some deaths are understood: One man, for example, stayed on the 27th floor with a disabled friend; both died. Other deaths remain a mystery. "We suspect some were in elevators" when the plane hit, vice president Deborah Bohren said. "But we don't really know." [World Trade Center Locked Stairwells/Evacuation Problems, Accumulating Comments on…. (c) 2001, Mike Barkley] Similarly, Summit Security Services, Inc., reported to be headquartered in the basement of the South Tower also was reported to have an office on the 22nd floor of the North Tower, with a number of employees working in that command center rather than the basement. They lost 11 employees in the blast. [Nico Haupt on WTC "Security Connections".2004, 9/11research in NYC, sync.democraticunderground.com...
The 23rd floor of the North Tower of the WTC held FBI records pertinent to investigations of international gold movements and violations of the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The stimulus for the FBI investigation was a lawsuit initiated by GATA against a number a major bullion international banks and the former US Secretary of the Treasury. The lawsuit alleged that these banks conspired to manipulate and artificially depress the price of gold. The evidence presented by GATA was quite compelling, and suggested that 1) these parties had used national gold reserves to illegally regulate the price of gold, 2) these banks had created a significant risk that threatened the liquidity of all of the key players, and 3) that the national gold reserves had been illegally depleted as a result. The basis for this suit was analysis of gold market prices and trades that suggested approximately 14,000 tonnes of paper gold had been artificially created to keep gold prices depressed. This report speculates that gold prices were not being manipulated, but rather 14,000 tonnes of stolen gold was being illegally laundered.
The logic of what GATA called a scam ‘on the American citizens and individual gold buyers’ was this. Bullion banks “loan” gold to each other at 1% or 2% interest. When they borrow gold to cover needs, they buy a gold future and assign it the lender. Thus the lender always has the “same” amount of gold, except some is ‘paper gold.’ According to GATA, these banks would loan gold to each other, and then sell the real gold, using the proceeds to invest in equities, which paid a higher return. This is a good deal when the investment’s return on the equity is greater than the costs of the increased price of gold. The GATA claim is that this process had been going on secretly for a number of years, with US private banks making hefty profits using US treasury gold. This process is not illegal – fixing-prices is. At some point in the process, these banks had loaned out more gold than could be produced by all the gold mines in the world in the next two and a half years. Because the world started viewing the dollar as overvalued, there was a move towards gold, which stood to drive the price of gold up – dangerously so. These banks then had to borrow and sell even more US gold, and then (it is contended) brought in the London banks to support them, to keep the price of gold artificially down. The prices had to be kept artificially low because if there was an actual call on the gold loans by one bank, it would bring them all down like a house of cards. There was not enough physical gold available to make good all the futures being held by the banks.
It has been speculated that it was these banks – with a focus on the American banks -that somehow brought about an attack on the FBI office, using the cover of the airliner assault to destroy the evidence against them. According to this theory, the attack needed to happen before October 9, 2001, when this lawsuit opened in court. It may be fair to speculate that U.S. bank executives were not worried about being convicted for violation of dubious and ambiguous laws. However – win or lose, this report speculates there was at least one group of bank executives that had plenty of reason to worry if this lawsuit saw the open courtroom, and that is the group that set out to destroy the World Trade Center. These are the executives who were worried that an investigation and trial would expose their gold laundering activity. This report speculates that gold being sold on the market was not ‘artificially created,’ but rather illegal, stolen gold that needed to be laundered. If the illegal gold was confiscated by the judicial system, the bankers responsible for protecting the gold would be help responsible, and their lives – most likely – would be forfeit.
The argument that the attack on the WTC was an attempt to silence an investigation into gold transactions and money laundering has never seriously been considered. In a world that has recently seen reports of the disappearance of 4,000 to 60,000 tonnes of illegal gold stolen from various national treasuries, no one seems to have asked: how is this gold being laundered? The selling behavior demonstrated by the bullion banks could also be interpreted as selling off huge, illegal gold hoards at a previously agreed upon price point.
The hypothesis that a large portion of this may be laundered by the Deutsche Bank becomes more compelling when one focuses on the Deutsche Bank, and its possible reasons for wanting this investigation quashed – which no one, except maybe the FBI, has focused on. The Deutsche Bank (along with Dresdner, and US banks) had been conducting gold sales for years, and indeed, it was speculated in the GATA suit that the European banks in general had illegally dumped large amounts of their reserve gold to buoy up bank profitability.
"Deutsche Bank, the largest German bank, which had precious metals derivatives at the end of 1996 with a total notional value under US$5 billion, by the end of 1999 had grown this business to a total notional value in excess of $50 billion, or by more than 10 times in three years. What is more, a huge amount of this growth came in 1999, especially in the last half, as can be seen by comparing the average notional value for 1999 ($37.7 billion) with the year-end notional value ($51.2 billion). Note also that this growth was almost all in the longer maturities. Nor can the 1999 growth in Deutsche Bank's precious metals derivatives be ascribed in any major way to its acquisition of Banker's Trust. Its OCC report for March 31, 1999, listed precious metals derivatives with a total notional value of around $6 billion, which by June 30 were just over $1 billion….." "The only major gold fund manager that I know who never owned a single share of Bre-X told me that he never bought the stock because: (1) even if you believed the company's story, the stock almost always looked too expensive; and (2) however great the ore deposit, large gold reserves are not built as quickly or as easily as Bre-X claimed to do. So too, the amazing emergence of Deutsche Bank from almost no gold derivatives business in 1996 to a book with a notional value approaching 5000 tonnes, larger by far than the book of any of the three principal U.S. commercial banks in this business, does not pass the smell test. Indeed, it is very hard to see any reason for the rapid creation of this huge position in gold derivatives other than to try to manipulate and control gold prices. [www.goldensextant.com, MPEG Commentary]
The question needs to be asked, however: what if the German banks, but primarily the Deutsche Bank – and possibly some American banks - were not selling its gold reserves, but rather was laundering gold for its clients from the dark side? Until this report, there has been no mention of this possibility. Not too long ago, several previous board members of the Deutsche Bank were indicted for helping high profile clients avoid taxes by laundering money into Switzerland. The bank certainly also had a reputation for the less dignified money laundering activity associated with ‘organized crime’ and the Chairman of the Deutsche Bank Board admitted the bank was “possibly” had been “misused” by these same Russian Mafiya types, previously linked to the Mossad by this report.
"On September 5, 1999, the German newspaper Weld am Sonntag quoted Deutschebank CEO Rolf Breuer saying that "It could be that we were abused as an intermediate coordinating point" in the fastdeveloping Russian money laundering scandal. Deutschebank and its U.S. affiliate Bankers Trust (BT) filed "suspicious transaction" reports about Russian clients, as BT had "correspondent banking" relationships with Russia's Inkombank, which "allegedly had ties to organized crime," according to USA Today ( 8-27-1999 ). Moreover, an Inner City Press story (9-11-1999) also revealed that German magazine Der Spiegel quoted Breuer as admitting that it was "possible" his bank was "misused" as an intermediary for money laundering." [The Profits of Death, Part III, Tom Flocco and Michael C Ruppert, From The Wilderness Publications, 2002]
"On August 28, 2001, 14 days before the Trade Center attacks, former Deutschebank senior bond investment trader Kevin Ingram, pled guilty in a $2.2 million dollar money laundering conspiracy, resulting from a government sting operation investigating the illegal sale of night vision goggles, Beretta machine pistols, M-16 machine guns with silencers, rocket propelled grenade launchers, mortars, surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), TOW anti-tank missiles, and Stinger missiles, according to court papers examined by the New York Post." [The Profits of Death, Part III, Tom Flocco and Michael C Ruppert, From The Wilderness Publications, 2002]
Any serious investigation into illegal gold laundering by the FBI probably would have exposed transactions no one wanted to make public. Any FBI evidence would have to be destroyed, and the investigation stopped. One of the more convenient aspects of the attack on the WTC is that while destroying relevant FBI investigation materials, it also destroyed all US Deutschebank records:
"Michigan Senator Carl Levin's Minority Banking Report of February 2001 calls correspondent banking the "gateway to money laundering," a financial technique wherein illicit money is moved from bank to bank with "no questions asked," thereby cleansing funds prior to being used for legitimate purposes. Via correspondent banking relationships, banks not licensed in the U.S. may gain access to American financial markets by establishing a correspondent relationship with banks that are.
Deutschebank is licensed in the U.S. and maintained offices at the World Trade Center. Deutschebank is licensed in the U.S. and maintained offices at the World Trade Center. All U.S. Deutschebank records were destroyed in the September 11 attacks." [The Profits of Death, Part III, Tom Flocco and Michael C Ruppert, From The Wilderness Publications, 2002]
The original GATA lawsuit was dismissed, and the FBI investigation was ended. A reorganization of the FBI in 2002 refocused agency attention on terrorism, leaving bank crime to “other agencies.” Another civil suit seeking to avoid the shortcomings of the first suit, was initiated in 2003, and was scheduled to be heard in April of 2005 – after successfully surviving the defendant’s motions to dismiss. It was settled out-of-court, under sealed conditions in 2006.
What the GATA and the subsequent suit never considered was that while “large, inexplicable” amounts of gold (estimated at 6,000 to 14,000 tonnes) were being released on the market by the bullion banks, possibly this was a gold laundering operation. Certainly enough stolen gold had poured into Germany and Switzerland from various sources to explain a majority of the German trades (and possibly trades by US banks as well), and these flows will be documented in this report:
• 3,000 tonnes of gold stolen from Russia by the KGB, a theft made public in September 1991 by Grigory Yavlinski;
• 40 tonnes of Czech gold;
• an undisclosed amount of Third Reich (Nazi) gold stolen from the Holocaust victims and their survivors as well as undisclosed treasury gold removed from the banks of conquered countries;
• at least 1,000 tonnes of Philippines gold from the Marcos family, which had previously been the wealth of the Japanese Imperial family hidden during World War II.. (Some estimates of this Golden Lily treasury reach up towards 60,000 tonnes.)
"Approximately 1,000 tons of the loot was liberated by Ferdinand Marcos before his ouster. Billions of dollars worth were shipped overseas by American intelligence agents and the Mafia. Much of the horde was cabbaged away in a high-security, subterranean storage cache buried beneath the Zurich airport. This vault was once used to conceal European gold from Hitler’s greedy SS scavengers. Fifty years later, some of the same bullion has found its way into the campaign coffers of ultraconservative political candidates in the U.S., according to the Las Vegas Sun. But Marcos didn’t recover the lion’s share of the pelf. A six-month series in the Sun reported in 1993 that Marcos abandoned thousands of tons of gold hidden in his homeland. Gary Thompson, the newspaper’s former managing editor, and journalist Steve Kanigher published copies of gold certificates from Credit Suisse, deposit records from the Union Bank of Switzerland the correspondence of Corazon Aquino and letters to Reagan administration officials documenting witness accounts that lackeys of the CIA and Army Special Forces carted off an unknown quantity of the bullion…. Citibank was drawn into the operation to negotiate ownership of a Philippine gold horde secreted in the Bahamas…. From the balmy islands, Imelda Marcos was heaving billions of dollars in gold on the black market, frantically, before the remains of their tin dictatorship was seized by the courts. The sudden infusion of Philippine gold on the world market threatened to depress the already-sagging price of the metal. This cabal settled on a drastic solution - a strategic terrorist act staged to drive up the price of gold. " [Saudi Entrepeneur Adnan Khashoggi Linked to 9/11 Terrorists, Alex Constantine]
While the early reports of this Philippine treasure were generally regarded by the media as rumor, the story was subsequently well substantiated by the reporting of David Guyatt and others. A major source for this documentation was a death bed statement by Brigadier-General Erle Cocke, in April 2000. Cocke was a banker before he became a black operative. He had worked as a “fixer” for "every President since Truman." Additionally, he was an Alternate Executive Director of the World Bank for four years, a member of the US delegation to the UN for two years running, with the pay and rank of a US Ambassador, a Knight of Malta and a Shriner Mason. According to these sources:
"the OSS--the wartime forerunner of America's spy agency, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-- began recovering the bullion plundered from a dozen or so nations. This bullion formed what became known as the "Black Eagle" fund, which was part of a secret agreement eclipsed behind the 1944 Bretton Woods Agreement. Consequently, the metal was placed under the care of OSS (and later CIA) operative Severino Garcia Santa Romana, who put it under the control of numerous corporate entities he formed for the purpose. These entities, in turn, proceeded to establish 176 bank accounts in 42 different countries in which to deposit these assets under private treaty agreement……. Santa Romana died in 1974, and following his death his former attorney and trustee was able to "acquire" considerable portions of Santa Romana's estate by illicit means. The lawyer was Ferdinand Marcos, who went on to become President of the Philippines and a favourite friend of the United States until his overthrow in 1986. The acquisition of these assets helped give rise to stories of "Marcos gold"--a legend that was supplemented by additional later recoveries of WWII gold and other loot using a Filipino Army battalion under the overall command of Marcos henchman General Fabian Ver." [Project Hammer Reloaded ,Part 1 of 2, Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 10, Number 5 (August-September 2003), by David G. Guyatt]
"Additional evidence of Marco’s recovering the Golden Lily treasure comes from the Filipino newspaper, The Inquirer. In 1998 the paper published an article entitled "Soldiers of Fortune." The article revealed that all members of the 16th Infantry Battalion had signed a joint affidavit declaring that, together with members of the 51st Engineering Brigade, they had recovered 60,000 metric tons of gold from thirty sites between 1973 and 1985. Both units operated in strict secrecy under Marcos’ henchman Fabian Ver." [Nazi Gold, Part 10: The Emperor's Golden Lily, Glen Yeadon , Copyright 2001-2004]
What is not recognized by many is that Krongard’s main assistant at Alex Brown was Mayo Shattuck. Mayo – who was also the personal financial advisor to Edgar Bronfman and Adnan Khashoggi - resigned as CEO of Deutschebank, America on September 12, 2001, and went on become CEO of the company that would replace the bankrupted Enron as the primary energy market maker. Mayo’s Deutschebank operation in the WTC was buried on September 11. Also rarely mentioned is the fact the Senator Carl Levin’s Senate Hearings into US money-laundering identified AB Brown – where Krongard, Shattuck and Beese were the top three executives - as one of the top twenty US banks involved in money laundering. Finally, one should note that Krongard was mentor to another placement from the CIA training facilities of the U.S. War College and John Hopkins. That protégé was named J. Carter Beese, who was one of George Bush appointees to the board of directors of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation in 1992, and later would become Chairman of Riggs Bank, as well as an SEC Commissioner (appointed by Bush.) J. Carter Beese Jr. was Chairman at Alex from 1994 to 1997, and would move from there to also be vice-Chairman of Bankers Trust. Beese went from Banker’s Trust to become President of Riggs Capital Partners, which will later be demonstrated to play a major role in George’s Bush’s 1991 10 year bond fraud, one of the major drivers behind the September 11 tragedy. Beese was the son of an FBI agent, and would live the life of a “made” man:
“In the annals of charmed lives, the Honorable J. Carter Beese had made an improbable and Algeresque journey from son of an FBI agent in New Jersey to the rarified halls of government and business. From afar, his life seemed miraculously blessed. The road to Alex Brown in the early 80s had three typical entry points: Gilman, Griswold or The Harvard Business School, rather than his New Jersey and Rollins College roots.” [A Tribute to the Honorable J Carter Beese Jr., Edwin Warfield,April 12, 2007, www.citybizlist.com...]
Beese, like many CIA trainees, would have his life ended in April 2007 with a reported suicide, at the age of 50. It also suggests that the management of the JP Morgan syndicate of financial institutions was in a position to be aware of these illegal gold transactions, as were other American financial institutions such as Citibank and Drexel.
"Drexel, Burnham, Lambert, New York, was a recipient of gold bullion from Philippine dictator Ferdinand Marcos in January 1984." [Project Hammer Reloaded , Part 1 of 2, Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 10, Number 5 (August-September 2003), by David G. Guyatt]
Winning or losing this lawsuit would be quite immaterial to a large number of people unless the banks had to reveal the sources of their gold, which generally had been funneled into Swiss accounts by German banks and its global network of banks. A substantial future revenue stream would be lost to the German banks if the underworld lost trust in them. It would also be fair to speculate that a few bankers would suffer cruel deaths if the details of these gold thefts were revealed. It is hypothesized that the exposure of this gold laundering activity was the ‘issue’ that allowed German banking executives and Russian KGB/Mafiya lords to sit at the same table and discuss a mutual interest in destroying the World Trade Center. It created the incentive to leverage Russian/Israeli Mafiya relationships within the Israeli Mossad, and initiate the attack on the World Trade Center. Interestingly, it was also this same type of interest in ‘preventing public disclosure, or exposure’ that may have encouraged Bush to divert attention away from this economic motive for a crime.
The current Bush administration has dropped all investigations of potential financial crimes associated with the destruction of the WTC. It has forced the FBI to drop the GATA/gold price-fixing investigation so as to focus on ‘terrorism.’ The Bush administration dropped the investigation of illegal stock trades once they were traced back to Israel. The 9/11 Commission report does not mention them, and there is no SEC nor FBI report on the investigation. Any formal announcement of the findings disappeared a long time ago, and an only inadvertent leak let the world know what really happened. An investigation into the destruction of the WTC as a classic criminal act rather than an act of political terror would most likely result in exposure bringing disrepute to the Bush family, and some of the most powerful banking executives in the world. Criminal charges would also be possible. It would also start in motion actions required to return billions of dollars of illegal gold to their rightful national treasuries. It would probably bring about the collapse of a number of major financial institutions. Therein lays the heart of real the National Security issue.
Before attempting to unravel the mechanism by which the laundering of illegal gold may have been perpetrated, one needs to understand the magnitude and difficulty of this crime. Gold, because of its scarcity and value, is a closely monitored commodity. Gold traders across the world monitor supply and demand, and report regularly on web sites. They watch it so closely, that when unexplained amounts of gold on the market in the 1990s started to depress prices, they traced it to bullion bank sales of reserves. The annual mining and production of physical gold contributes only about 2,500 tonnes per year (See Figure 4 for annual production rates). The price of gold has remained relatively stable from 1992 to 2003 (See Table 4). Had there been a significant ‘dump’ of illegal gold in the magnitude of 2,000 to 3,000 tonnes or more in a short span of time, the transaction would have been easily identified by the market watchers as laundering activity. Hence, illegal gold from Russia, Switzerland or the Philippines would have had to been moved into the market slowly, with a credible paper trail. The strategy for laundering gold without depressing prices would have been a rate of laundering in the range of 10% of market supply and demand, possibly 200 to 300 tonnes per year. Anyone sitting on stolen gold could not dump it immediately, but would require institutional help in laundering 5% to 10% of the hoard per year, over ten to fifteen years – unless they got greedy, and wanted a faster payout.
Based on market conditions, estimated illegal gold from the Philippines (at least 1,000 tonnes) and Russia (3,000 tonnes) might be worth up to $40 to $50 billion if unlaundered. If it was laundered and converted into the foundation for derivatives, at a ratio between 100:1 and 400:1, the managed value falls somewhere potentially between $4 trillion and $20 trillion.
This report finds both Khashoggi and Shiek Kamal Adham (now deceased) both having criminal records, both having been linked to financial fraud, and both directly linked to:
1. the distribution of massive quantities of illegal gold,
2. the creation of potential gold laundering operations, the investigation into which was covered up by the destruction of the World Trade Center,
3. the funding of a flight school used to train WTC attackers, and
4. the recruitment of flight school trainees through Khashoggi ’s relationship with Yeslam Bin Ladin, the brother of Osama Bin Laden, or Adham’s relationship with Osama Bin Laden as brother-in-law.
At this point in time, Khashoggi remains protected by agencies of the US government (in the name of National Security) against arrest and prosecution by several nations.
In 2003, a Forbes magazine article reported that Bronfman took a course from NXIVM, endorsing it, but had since "grown troubled" due to the "emotional and financial investment" daughters Clare and Sara were giving to Raniere's group, remarking that Clare had loaned NXIVM $2 million, though she denied this. Bronfman was quoted stating, "I think it's a cult." In 2018, Raniere, then daughter Clare and her long-time mentor NXIVM president Nancy Salzman, among others, were arrested on federal charges in connection with NXIVM. In September 2018, daughter Sara was named the defendant in a 2018 class-action suit regarding her NXIVM activities.
Clare Bronfman and other followers of Keith Raniere, who cofounded and ran the alleged cult Nxivm, hacked into her father’s email—the late billionaire Edgar Bronfman Sr.—to monitor him after he told Forbes in 2003 that he thought Nxivm was a “cult,” a person involved in the spying campaign testified Tuesday. A witness, identified only as “Daniela,” testified during the racketeering and sex trafficking trial against Raniere in federal court in Brooklyn that she and other members sent emails to Bronfman Sr. that contained malware, the New York Times reports. When the email phishing campaign didn’t work, Clare installed the spyware directly onto her father’s computer, Daniela said. The installation was a success. “I would read all of his correspondence,” Daniela testified, as the Times reports. “I would methodically check email by email.”
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) (IEEPA), the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) (NEA), the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act (Public Law 114-328) (the “Act”), section 212(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (8 U.S.C. 1182(f)) (INA), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code,
The International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA), Title II of Pub.L. 95–223, 91 Stat. 1626, enacted October 28, 1977, is a United States federal law authorizing the President to regulate international commerce after declaring a national emergency in response to any unusual and extraordinary threat to the United States which has its source in whole or substantial part outside the United States. The H.R. 7738 legislation was passed by the United States 95th Congressional session and signed by President Jimmy Carter on December 28, 1977.
It further authorizes the president, after such a declaration, to block transactions and freeze assets to deal with the threat. In the event of an actual attack on the United States, the president can also confiscate property connected with a country, group, or person that aided in the attack.
The IEEPA falls under the provisions of the National Emergencies Act (NEA), which means that an emergency declared under the act must be renewed annually to remain in effect.
Congress enacted the IEEPA in 1977 to clarify and restrict presidential power during times of declared national emergency under the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 ("TWEA"). Under TWEA, starting with Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, presidents had the power to declare emergencies without limiting their scope or duration, without citing the relevant statutes, and without congressional oversight. The Supreme Court in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer limited what a president could do in such an emergency, but did not limit the emergency declaration power itself. A 1973 Senate investigation found (in Senate Report 93-549) that four declared emergencies remained in effect: the 1933 banking crisis with respect to the hoarding of gold, a 1950 emergency with respect to the Korean War, a 1970 emergency regarding the postal workers strike, and a 1971 emergency in response to the government's deteriorating economic and fiscal conditions. Congress terminated these emergencies with the National Emergencies Act, and then passed the IEEPA to restore the emergency power in a limited, overseeable form.
Following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13224 under IEEPA to block the assets of terrorist organizations. The President delegated blocking authority to federal agencies led by the U.S. Treasury. In October 2001, Congress passed the USA PATRIOT Act which, in part, enhanced IEEPA asset blocking provisions under §1702(a)(1)(B) to permit the blocking of assets during the "pendency of an investigation." This statutory change gave the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control the power to block assets without the need to provide evidence of the blocking subject's wrongdoing nor to permit the blocking subject a chance to effectively respond to the allegations in court. Executing these blocking actions led to a series of legal cases challenging federal authority to indefinitely prevent charitable organizations from accessing their assets held in the United States.
On May 30 2019, the White House announced that President Donald Trump would use IEEPA powers to introduce tariffs on Mexican exports in response to the perceived national security threat of undocumented migration from Mexico into the United States.