a reply to: andy06shake
355: After removing a Roman temple from the site (possibly the Temple of Aphrodite built by Hadrian), Constantine I has the Church of the Holy
Sepulcher constructed in Jerusalem. Built around the excavated hill of the Crucifixion, legend has it that Constantine's mother Helena discovered the
True Cross here.
570: Muhammad was born in Mecca.
590 - 604: Pope Gregory the Great (c. 540 - 604) begans his liturgical reforms and changes in church administration.
594: Muhammad became the manager of the business of Lady Khadija.
595: Muhammad married Hadrat Khadija.
610: Muhammad had a religious experience on Mount Hira that changed his life.
613: Persians capture Damascus and Antioch.
614: Persians sack Jerusalem. damaging the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the process.
615: Muhammad invited the Hashimites to adopt Islam.
615: Persecution of Muslims by the Quaraish in Mecca intensified and a group of Muslims leave for Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia).
621: Abu Jahl became leader of a mounting opposition to Muslims in Mecca and organized a boycott of merchants in Mohammad's clan, the Hashim.
622: About 75 converts from Medina took the two Pledges of al-Aqaba, professing to Islam and to protect Muhammad from all danger.
622: The Hijra: emigration of Muhammad and his followers to Yathrib (now: Madinat al-Nabi, "the city of the Prophet," or simply, al-Madina).
Foundation of the first Islamic community; social and economic reforms. Starting point of the Islamic calendar.
624: Muhammad broke with his Jewish supporters because they refused to recognize him as a prophet and adopt Isalm. He chose now to emphasize the
Arabness of the new religion and has his followers face Mecca when praying instead of Jerusalem. In the end, all the Jews were either banished or
March 15, 624: At the Battle of Abdr, Muhammad and his followers defeated an army from Mecca. Muhammad's chief rival in Mecca, Abu Jahl, was
627: Meccan leader Abu Sufyan (c. 567 - c. 655) laid siege to Muhammad's forces in Medina during the battle of the Trench. Even with 10,000 men he was
unsuccessful for the 15 days he was there. Muhammad suspected the Banu Quraiza Jews of helping the Meccans and had all the men killed.
627: A confederation was created between Muhammad's followers in Mecca and the eight Arab clains in Medina with the Constitution of Medina.
628: Muhammad led about 1,600 men on a pilgrimage to Mecca where their passage was blocked by citizens of Mecca. Fortunately they agreed to negotiate
with Muhammad and then later agreed to the Pact of Hudaibiya, ending hostilities and allowing for Muslim pilgrimages.
629: After a group of Muslims was attacked, Muhammad dissolved the Pact of Hudaibiya and prepared to attack Mecca.
630: An army of 30,000 Muslims marched on Mecca which surrendered with little resistance. Muhammad took control of the city and made it the spiritual
center of Islam.
632: Death of Muhammad. His father-in-law, Abu-Bakr, and Umar devised a system to allow Islam to sustain religious and political stability. Accepting
the name of caliph ("deputy of the Prophet"), Abu-Bakr begins a military exhibition to enforce the caliph's authority over Arabian followers of
Muhammad. Abu-Bakr then moved northward, defeating Byzantine and Persian forces. Abu-Bakr died two years later and Umar succeeded him as the second
caliph, launching a new campaign against the neighboring empires.
632-34: Widespread tribal rebellion on the death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr, the first caliph (khalifa) reimposes the authority of the Islamic government
throughout Arabia and sends Arab armies of conquest against Mesopotamia and Syria.
633: Muslims conquer Syria and Iraq.
634: Victory against the Byzantines in Palestine (Ajnadayn).
634-644: Umar (c. 591-644) reigns as the second caliph. The Muslims subjugate Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia. Garrisons established
in the conquered lands, and the Muslim rulers begin to take control of financial organisation.
635: Muslims begin the conquest of Persia and Syria.
635: Arab Muslims capture the city of Damascus from the Byzantines.
August 20, 636: Battle of Yarmuk (also: Yarmuq, Hieromyax): Following the Muslim capture of Damascus and Edessa, Byzantine Emperor Heraclius organizes
a large army which manages to take back control of those cities. However, Byzantine commander, Baänes is soundly defeated by Muslim forces under
Khalid ibn Walid in a battle in the valley of the Yarmuk River outside Damascus. This leaves all of Syria open to Arab domination.
636 (?): The Arabs under Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas defeat a Sasanian army in the battle of Qadisiyya (near Hira), gaining Iraq west of the Tigris. A second
victory follows at Jalula, near Ctesiphon.
637: The Arabs occupy the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. By 651, the entire Persian realm would come under the rule of Islam and continued its westward
637: Syria is conquered by Muslim forces.
637: Jerusalem falls to invading Muslim forces.
638: Caliph Umar I enters Jerusalem.
639-42: Conquest of Egypt (642 taking of Alexandria) by 'Amr ibn al-'As. Muslims capture the sea port of Caesarea in Palestine, marking end of the
Byzantine presence in Syria.
641: Islam spreads into Egypt. The Catholic Archbishop invites Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors.
641: Under the leadership of Abd-al-Rahman, Muslims conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Georgia, and Armenia.
641/2: Under the leadership of Amr ibn al-As, Muslims conquer the Byzantine city of Alexandria in Egypt. Amr forbids the looting of the city and
proclaims freedom of worship for all. According to some accounts, he also has what was left of the Great Library burned the following year. Al-As
creates the first Muslim city in Egypt, al-Fustat, and builds there the first mosque in Egypt.
644: Muslim leader Umar dies and is succeeded by Caliph Uthman, a member of the Umayyad family that had rejected Muhammad's prophesies. Rallies arise
to support Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, as caliph. Uthman launches invasions to the west into North Africa.
649: Muawiya I, a member of the Umayyad family, leads a raid against Cyprus, sacking the capital Salamis-Constantia after a short siege and pillaging
the rest of the island.
652: Sicily is attacked by Muslims coming out of Tunisia (named Ifriqiya by the Muslims, a name later given to the entire continent of Africa).
653: Muawiya I leads a raid against Rhodes, taking the remaining pieces of the Colossus of Rhodes (one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world) and
shipping it back to Syria to be sold as scrap metal.
654: Muawiya I conquers Cyprus and stations a large garrison there. The island would remain in Muslim hands until 0966.
655: Battle of the Masts: In one of the few Muslim naval victories in the entire history of Islam, Muslim forces under the command of Uthman bin Affan
defeat Byzantine forces under Emperor Constant II. The battle takes place off the coast of Lycia and is an important stage in the decline of Byzantine