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It is theoretically observed that the superconducting charge carrier mass is inversely proportional to the vibration frequency squared and that the diamagnetism exhibited by the [RTSC] is enhanced with increasing frequency of vibration
Used for the electrically charged surfaces of the HAUC craft [Hybrid Aerospace Undersea Craft], such room temperature superconductors can give rise to very high Q-factors (namely the ratio of energy stored divided by energy lost is extremely high), which greatly modifies the quantum vacuum state energy density in close proximity to the craft so as to generate the macroscopic quantum coherence effect necessary for inertial mass reduction and hence propulsion of the craft (AIAA 2017-5343).
The fact that no cryogenic fluids need to be carried on the hybrid craft in order to induce superconductivity is highly desirable from a craft weight minimization perspective.
Using numerical simulations, the researchers found that this unconventional type of conductivity, which is believed to take place under non-equilibrium conditions in strongly correlated materials such as high-Tc cuprates and iron-pnictides, arises due to a phenomenon known as eta pairing. This is different from the superconductivity observed in the same strongly correlated materials under equilibrium conditions, and is thought to involve repulsive interactions between certain electrons within the structure. It is also different from traditional superconductivity, where the phenomenon arises due to interactions between electrons and vibrations of the crystal structure, inducing mutual interactions between electrons through vibrations and thus overcoming the repulsion between the electrons.
"What we are doing is 'poking' the system by introducing disorder into the crystal lattice," said Ames Laboratory scientist Ruslan Prozorov. "By knocking out some of the ions, impacting electrons create defects in the material. Both quantum ordered states (CDW and superconductivity) respond in certain ways to these additional defects, which we can measure."
The research, which included resistivity measurements, London penetration depth studies, and X-ray diffraction, showed that the relationship between CDW and superconductivity is complicated—in some ways the two states compete with each other, and in others, CDW assists superconductivity.
"Charge density wave competes with superconductivity for the same conduction electrons," said Prozorov. "As CDW is suppressed or disrupted, superconductivity is grabbing the electrons needed to form Cooper's pairs, which form superconducting condensate."
But CDW also assists superconductivity through its coupling to crystal lattice vibrations, called phonons. And phonons act as a "glue" between electrons to form a Cooper pair. At some threshold level of disorder, long-range ordered CDW disappears abruptly, and superconducting transition temperature is abruptly reduced as well.
Being piezoelectric, PZT develops a voltage (or potential difference) across two of its faces when compressed (useful for sensor applications), and physically changes shape when an external electric field is applied (useful for actuator applications). The relative permittivity of PZT can range from 300 to 3850, depending upon orientation and doping.
Ferroelectric materials have a charge polarization that can be switched in direction by an applied electric field. Oxide perovskites, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), are commonly studied and used as ferroelectrics, but they suffer from low paraelectric transition temperatures, non-linear displacements, or limited compatibility with silicon CMOS or III-nitride manufacturing.
Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Materials Science and Technology Division, have demonstrated that the intensity and spectral composition of the photoluminescence emitted from a single monolayer of tungsten disulphide (WS2) can be spatially controlled by the polarization domains in an adjacent film of the ferroelectric material lead zirconium titanate (PZT).
They found that the PL [photo luminescence] intensity from the WS2 is high only from the areas over domains in the PZT where the polarization dipole points out of the surface plane, as shown in the adjacent figure. Further analysis revealed that the spectral composition of the PL was also strongly affected—the spectra from the "up" domains were dominated by neutral exciton contributions (a bound state of an electron and hole arising from Coulomb interaction), while those from the "down" domains were dominated by negatively charged exciton, or trion, contributions (an exciton with an extra electron).
"Fabricating these hybrid 2D/3-D ferroelectric heterostructures enables one to purposefully design and modulate adjacent populations of trions and neutral excitons, creating lateral domains in any geometry of choice" notes Dr. Berend Jonker, senior scientist and principal investigator. Dr. Connie Li, lead author of the study, further points out: "Because the FE domains can be rewritten with an atomic force microscope and are non-volatile, this enables spatial modulation of the TMD properties with nanometer scale resolution."
originally posted by: TEOTWAWKIAIFF
a reply to: punkinworks10
Nice to see you around! Hope all is well since I haven’t seen you here in a little while...
The guy with the patent for this has others that if you use them together make you wonder.
As far as cooling goes... you get quantum effects going and billion trillion molecules doing the same effort (all rowing in the same direction so to speak), there are multiple things that can be done in the macro world. Cooling is one which leads to other 2D materials in conjunction with others all stacked up.
The sky, both literally and figuratively, is the limit!
Why stop at the sky... ??
originally posted by: TEOTWAWKIAIFF
A scientist working for the U.S. Navy has filed for a patent on a room-temperature superconductor, representing a potential paradigm shift in energy transmission and computer systems.
The application claims that a room-temperature superconductor can be built using a wire with an insulator core and an aluminum PZT (lead zirconate titanate) coating deposited by vacuum evaporation with a thickness of the London penetration depth and polarized after deposition.
An electromagnetic coil is circumferentially positioned around the coating such that when the coil is activated with a pulsed current, a non-linear vibration is induced, enabling room temperature superconductivity.
phys.org, Feb 22, 2019 - Navy files for patent on room-temperature superconductor.
Patent: Piezo-electricity Induced Room Temperature Superconductor.pdf ("RTSC" in doc)
In superconductors, the London penetration depth (usually denoted as [λ Lambda] characterizes the distance to which a magnetic field penetrates into a superconductor and becomes equal to e−1 times that of the magnetic field at the surface of the superconductor. Typical values of λ L range from 50 to 500 nm.
The article also states: No data was included in the patent documents.
Interesting! An insulator on the inside with a coating on the outside (CVD where particles are deposited under vacuum), and can be any suitable material that can induce the piezo electric effect (PZE). The magnetic coil surrounding the wire induces PZE in the material which, according to the patent, is around 50 - 500 nanometers. Once vibrating, the electrons flow with no resistance!! At room temperature (~ 300 K, or, ~ 74 °F/23 °C)!!
As a certain member here will point out, "Does it work"?? Because you have a patent on something does not mean that it actually functions, just that you paid the fee and put your good name on some idea.
But the whole point is... IT IS A RTSC!!!
If this actually does work, and is implemented, then the entire grid distribution (aka, "The Grid"), will go that way! Right now, up to 10% of the electricity being shoved down the line is lost due to resistance (which means "radiated as heat"), and this would solve all of that!
H3ll yeah this is cool news!!!
As I have stated before. In order to bring a nuclear fusion power supply on-line you will need better power distribution and a method to store the electricity. A RTSC Grid and Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries fit the bill. Bring on the Lockheed Skunkworks T-X compact fusion reactor!!
"Piezoelectric materials, such as a quartz crystal in a wristwatch, can vibrate at a very specific frequency in response to an applied voltage," senior author Dr. Hirotsugu Ogi explains. Here, a piece of piezoelectric lithium niobate was set to vibrate underneath the sample during the metallic nanoparticle deposition. The oscillating piezoelectric created an electric field around the sample, which in turn induced a current in the device that depended on the connectivity of the palladium network.
Then, the attenuation of the oscillation changes depending on the connectivity. Therefore, by listening to the sound (measuring the attenuation) of the piezoelectric material, the connectivity can be monitored.
We [The War Zone] have several active Freedom of Information Act requests with the Department of Navy to pursue more information related to the research that led to these patents. As those are being processed, we've continued to dig through the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office's (USPTO) Public Patent Application Information Retrieval database to get as much context for these patents as possible.
In doing so, we came across documents that seem to suggest, at least by the Navy's own claims, that two highly peculiar Navy patents, the room temperature superconductor (RTSC) and the high-energy electromagnetic field generator (HEEMFG), may in fact already be in operation in some manner. The inventor of the Navy's most bizarre patent, the straight-out-of-science fiction-sounding hybrid aerospace/underwater craft, describes that craft as leveraging the same room temperature superconductor technology and high energy electromagnetic fields to enable its unbelievable speed and maneuverability. If those two technologies are already operable as the Navy claims, could this mean the hybrid craft may also already operable or close to operable? Or is this just more evidence that the whole exotic 'UFO' patent endeavor on the Navy's behalf is some sort of ruse or even gross mismanagement of resources?
In the Navy’s patent application for the HUAC, it’s claimed that the radical abilities of propulsion and maneuverability are made possible thanks to an incredibly powerful electromagnetic field that essentially creates a quantum vacuum around itself that allows it to ignore aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces and remove its own inertial mass from the equation. Thus, the ability to generate such high-frequency electromagnetic waves is key to the alleged abilities of this theoretical hybrid craft that can soar near effortlessly through air and water at incredible speeds with little to no resistance or inertia.
In the patent application documents for the HEEMFG, we came across a record of an interview requested by Pais and the Navy as part of the appeal process for the patent’s initial rejection. During this telephone interview, which took place on July 10, 2018, Pais and the Navy’s attorney presented evidence that the high energy electromagnetic field generator was, in fact, operable and was a “formative invention in its incipient stage(s).”