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Our Atmosphere

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posted on Dec, 10 2018 @ 04:53 PM
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This article is based on facts mostly quoted from Wikipedia but include scientific sources mixed with articles and my own conclusions.

It started out as; what am I missing because my country South Africa just implemented a carbon tax, so I decided to educate myself about the various dynamic processes within the atmospheric layers that are still poorly understood and I was hoping by characterizing what is happening in the atmosphere, I can learn more about the physical processes involved. The private study turned into this thread.

Ok, our variable Sun is the main player and send electrically charged superheated gas (magnetize particles) through the solar system. When it fluctuate it controls the Total Solar Irradiation (TSI) Earth receive doing its thing in our different atmospheric layers making life possible. Lately I see it affecting some of our thinking processes as opinions without facts are aggressively defended. But that’s us humans and me included with my cyclic belief but does not include politicians, I mean parasites.

Because it is my thread I will boost my private belief and mention Dr. Norman Page that attributes climate changes to natural (60-year and millennial-scale) cycles of solar activity (and cloud cover changes), and he notes that the rise in solar activity since the depths of the Little Ice Age has been the predominant climate driver. And lastly not forgetting, David Dilley CEO of Global Weather Oscillations that told the Daily Star Online that global warming and cooling cycles are determined by the gravitational forces of the Earth, Moon and Sun. Each cycle lasts around 120 000 years, with sub-cycles of around 230 years.

Good! with that out of the way let me try figure out what’s involve with the taxes we pay:

Radiation:
Scattering occurs when radiation is deflected and/or redirected upon entering the atmosphere by dust, gas, ice, water vapor etc. If the energy waves have a shorter wavelength, they are scattered more than those with longer wavelengths.

Transmission occurs when both shortwave and longwave energy pass through the atmosphere and water instead of scattering when interacting with gases and other particles in the atmosphere.

Refraction occur when solar radiation/energy moves from one type of space to another, such as from air into water. As the energy moves from these spaces, it changes its speed and direction when reacting with the particles present there. The shift in direction often causes the energy to bend.

Absorption is the conversion of energy from one form into another. Like for instance when solar radiation is absorbed by water, its energy shifts to the water and raises its temperature.

Reflection/Albedo is when a portion of energy bounces directly back to space without being absorbed, refracted, transmitted, or scattered.

The Sun:
Our fire varies on a cyclic basis and gives us heat through radiation which are affected by the conditions in-between and the clothes we wear.
Magnetic waves travel in both directions along the Sun's magnetic field. This leads to an interaction between oppositely directed waves, which allows the energy they carry to be broken down and accelerate the solar wind. The solar wind can vary between a gentle 500,000 miles per hour to a gusty two million miles per hour of fast moving million-degree gas (Electromagnetic radiation) at up to a billion kilograms of the Sun's atmosphere per second. The Sun’s magnetic field called the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) extends well beyond the Oort cloud up to Heliopause where it balance and interacts with interstellar space.
The in-between conditions like CME’s, coral holes streams, etc. and cosmic radiation to explain its interactions with the (TSI) Earth receive, should be easy to research without posting a specific link. But the breakthrough work of Dr Valentina Zharkova with a 97% accuracy explaining the inner processes of the Sun, needs to be singled out. Personally I feel she needs a medal but as always more data will be needed to explain the disputed climate changes on Earth, or rather the reasons behind it.



Electromagnetic radiation (EM or EMR):
Electromagnetic Waves - Electromagnetic radiation (EM) consists of alternating electric and magnetic fields spanning a wide range of wavelengths (frequency) from the ultraviolet to the microwave region. Radiation is often specified by its wavelength, which is the distance between crests of the electric or magnetic fields. The speed with which electromagnetic radiation travels in a vacuum (2.997 x 108 m s-1) is known as the speed of light. In the atmosphere, it travels slightly more slowly due to interaction with air molecules.
When (EM) moves through a medium consisting of atoms and molecules it will interact with that medium through various processes, among them absorption and scattering of this (EM) energy, atoms and molecules. The efficiency of the interaction is however related to the amount of absorption due to particle shape, size, index of refraction, wavelength etc. It is however more convenient to sometimes represent (EM) as rays of energy instead of waves. Rays are lines along which waves travel and are drawn perpendicular to each wave front. Changes in velocity of a ray/wave’s direction are called refraction. The angles (bending) of rays moving between two different isotropic media is an indication of the refraction rate.
“The energy of photons is directly proportional to the frequency of a (EMR) wave. As a photon is absorbed by an atom, it excites the atom, elevating an electron to a higher energy level (one that is on average farther from the nucleus). When an electron in an excited molecule or atom descends to a lower energy level, it emits a photon of light at a frequency corresponding to the energy difference. Since the energy levels of electrons in atoms are discrete, each element and each molecule emits and absorbs its own characteristic frequencies.”


And to the rest: Have a Blest and Merry festive season.




posted on Dec, 10 2018 @ 04:53 PM
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Magnetic fields:
Charged particles when in motion can experience a magnetic force in the absence of an electric field. Magnetic fields have no beginning or end where plasma (inductive soup – photons and electrons) plays the leading role in its strength and continuation in the Universe.
The magnetopause is our magnetic boundary where Earths protection begins against radiation. We find our magnetic field lines through all of Earths atmospheric layers with different effects from the Plasmasphere, a donut-shaped region containing low-energy charged particles, Van-Allen belts, plasma tubes, frequency interference in the Ionosphere and electrical discharges between the particles of layers. Hi energetic (inductive) particles can run along Earth’s magnetic lines and bounce back at the poles. Here we know how the magnetosphere shrinks on the side facing the Sun due to its magnetic field strength. We also see this in the Ionosphere where Ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun collides with atoms knocking electrons loose affecting radio signals (frequencies) with its day and night side differences. These effects are massif, how it influence our climate I do not know but personally I will put magnetism and current flows at the top of the list of contributors followings the Sun output.

Gravity:
Another one of the, we know so much but understand so little. Let me put my neck out a little more; The tendency of particles is to bond due to gravity. In a body the inductive and capacitive particles contribute towards the total gravitational force. The inductive energetic particles however form the magnetic lines between bodies in space. Dependable on mass and Angular Momentum (AM) the capacitive gravitational bond (what I call the elastic bands) of bodies will balance at a distance forming the free empty space areas between them. But it doesn’t really matter how I see it, as the fact remains that gravity control our atmospheric layers and their make-up based on their molecular weight. Which is obviously disturbed by local conditions like weather and other Earth influences?

Radiation of heat:
Thermal radiation is a direct result of the random movements of atoms and molecules in matter. Since these atoms and molecules are composed of charged particles (protons and electrons), their movement results in the emission of electromagnetic radiation, which carries energy/heat away from a surface.
In the atmosphere we get the transfer of heat/energy by means of photons in electromagnetic waves. This energy/heat emitted through matter or without the presence thereof, like in a vacuum of space, will also propagate towards balancing its surrounding environment. When an object is at a different temperature from another body or its surroundings, heat flows so that the body and the surroundings reach the same temperature, at which point they are in thermal equilibrium.

Let’s look at the clothes we wear: (Oxygen is my jacket)

Troposphere:
Most of the mass (about 75-80%) of the atmosphere is in the Troposphere.
The troposphere is not heated directly by the sun. Instead, the sun heats the ground and the ocean and this heat is then radiated back into the atmosphere. And although gravity causes air pressure to be highest at sea level the turbulence due to earths spin and weather makes the atmosphere in the Troposphere well mixed.
Declining oxygen levels will however thin the density of the atmosphere causing more radiation to reach Earths surface with more evaporation of water vapour giving the bigger fluctuations we are currently experiencing.
This is when the Albedo comes into play with more clouds. A second natural way of increasing the Albedo is during a low Sun output when more cosmic radiation reach Earth causing more volcanoes to erupt where the dust and sulphuric acid particles reflect the sunlight (the smaller they are, the more they reflect). And volcanic gasses mixing with water vapour makes even more clouds.
It is also proven in tree-ring data that a colder Sun always produce a rise in carbon-14 in the earth's atmosphere.
Earth’s enclosed weather system is however well balanced. When we get heat spikes in some areas we will get balancing colder spots in other areas. The holes in my pants (polar regions) do allow for the release of gas as the aroras prove the photons/electron interactions with its colour displays, but due to the canopy effect at the equator we get this heat trapping effect of our atmosphere up to the top of the Stratosphere (Ozone).
The oceans forms about 70% of Earths surface and its role are not completely understood and incorporated in our climate balance. We know that a low Sun output and more cosmic radiation cause more volcanoes and earthquakes where volcanoes seems to be the leader in short term climate data. But how much do we know about them and their influence under water? There is however progress made with ongoing studies and the volcanoes under Western Antarctica are getting their fair share of recognition lately.

Stratosphere:
This area is very dry, static and stable where disruptions seldom occur. Some influences are large and/or sulphur rich volcanic eruptions and super storms that are able to break through the Tropospause. The warmer ozone that is formed at the top of the Stratosphere makes it vertically static and therefore a stable layer. Horizontally we get winds that change from west to eastward in predictable sequences of roughly a two-year periods with one little hiccups we know about since our time of data collection.

“In the stratosphere additional water vapor is produced by the photochemical oxidation of methane (CH4). The HO2 radical produced by the reaction of OH with O3 is recycled to OH by reaction with oxygen atoms or ozone. In addition, solar proton events can significantly affect ozone levels via radiolysis with the subsequent formation of OH . Laughing gas or nitrous oxide (N2O) is produced by biological activity at the surface and is oxidised to NO in the stratosphere; the so-called NOx radical cycles also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finally, chlorofluorocarbon molecules are photolysed in the stratosphere releasing chlorine atoms that react with ozone giving ClO and O2. The chlorine atoms are recycled when ClO reacts with O in the upper stratosphere, or when ClO reacts with itself in the chemistry of the Antarctic ozone hole.”



posted on Dec, 10 2018 @ 04:54 PM
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Mesosphere:
The air is very thin where the gases are still mixed up as in the Troposphere and Stratosphere rather than being layered by their mass. But it still has enough density to cause friction and create the heat for us to see our shooting stars. Waves of air forming in the lower atmosphere, the troposphere and stratosphere, move upward into the mesosphere. The waves carry energy to the mesosphere where most of the movement of air in the mesosphere is caused by these waves.
Just below the Mesopause, the air is so cold that even the very scarce water vapour at this altitude can be sublimated into polar-mesospheric noctilucent clouds. These are the highest clouds in the atmosphere and may be visible to the naked eye if sunlight reflects off them about an hour or two after sunset or a similar length of time before sunrise. They are most readily visible when the Sun is around 4 to 16 degrees below the horizon. A type of lightning referred to as either sprites or ELVES, occasionally forming far above the thunderclouds in the troposphere.

Ionosphere: (magnetic layer)
The Ionosphere forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. The Ionosphere is not a stand alone atmospheric layer and starts in the upper Stratosphere (Ozone) extending to the Exosphere. It is where the battle between Earths magnetic field lines and (EM) can be seen having massif interactions. The different layers within the Ionosphere absorb, filter or bounce certain frequencies used in communication. Most of the absorption occurs in the D region (50–90 km altitude) where the product of the electron density and the electron-neutral collision frequency attains a maximum.
When the magnetic field from solar eruptions hits the Earth’s magnetic field in the ionosphere, their force fields are mixed. This forms unstable areas which are extending over large areas near the North Pole. This area of patches at the polar cap may extend over 500 to 1 000 km (310 - 620 miles) with electron speeds exceeding 1 000 meters per second and gives rise to disappearing electrons and surging powerful Northern Lights that creates turbulent conditions.

Thermosphere:
Solar activity strongly influences temperature in the thermosphere where particles began to take on a layered position due to weight. Temperatures climb sharply in the lower thermosphere (below 200 to 300 km altitude), then level off and hold fairly steady with increasing altitude above that height.
In the thermosphere the air density is so low that gas particle collisions are infrequently and the gases become somewhat separated based on the types of chemical elements they contain. Energetic ultraviolet and X-ray photons from the Sun also break apart molecules in the thermosphere. In the upper thermosphere, atomic oxygen (O), atomic nitrogen (N), and helium (He) are the main components of air.
Much of the X-ray and UV radiation from the Sun is absorbed in the thermosphere. When the Sun is very active and emitting more high energy radiation, the thermosphere gets hotter and expands or "puffs up". Because of this, the height of the top of the thermosphere (the Thermopause) varies.
High-energy solar photons also tear electrons away from gas particles in the thermosphere, creating electrically-charged ions of atoms and molecules. Earth's ionosphere, composed of several regions of such ionized particles in the atmosphere, overlaps with and shares the same space with the electrically neutral thermosphere.
Like the waves and tides in the Mesosphere energy moves around within the atmosphere of the Thermosphere. Winds and the overall circulation in the thermosphere are largely driven by these tides and waves. Moving ions, dragged along by collisions with the electrically neutral gases, produce powerful electrical currents in some parts of the thermosphere.

Exosphere:
Very high up, the Earth's atmosphere becomes very thin. The region where atoms and molecules escape into space is referred to as the exosphere. The exosphere merges with the emptiness of outer space, where there is no atmosphere.
This layer is mainly composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen, helium and several heavier molecules including nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide closer to the exobase. The atoms and molecules are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another. Thus, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, and the particles constantly escape into space. These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate in and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind.

Conclusion:
We know so little but want to pinpoint and seems to dismiss Magnetism and its interactions with (EMR) as well as Earth’s Albedo and Oceans which are three of the areas not well understood (difficult to determine due to the lack of data). A thing that worries me is that more cosmic radiation is supposedly to make more clouds which is the opposite where I stay. When we do get clouds it very seldom is rain giving clouds. Maybe its just the change in weather patterns at location due to climate change.

Feel free to correct mistakes in my learning curve. The ANC, Trolls and/or rude people can stay away.

And to the rest: Have a Blest and Merry festive season.



posted on Dec, 10 2018 @ 05:01 PM
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Bottom lines is that carbon taxes are a fraud. if they truly want to stop pollution simply make it illegal to create that pollution. The goal should be no polluters (but more for clean air and water rather than climate) rather than letting dirty polluters buy there way out of it from non-polluters. Any politician who proposes carbon taxes should be removed from office as they are not acting in your/my interest or they may believe they are, but are too stupid to know the difference or too greedy so they look the other way.



posted on Dec, 10 2018 @ 05:03 PM
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Good reading! Not finished yet.

But upon fact checking I see some of this is directly quoted from books online etc. Probs best post a link to the pieces to give credit.



posted on Dec, 10 2018 @ 05:08 PM
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A bit lazy and that is about a days work. That is why I opened the post with
"This article is based on facts mostly quoted from Wikipedia but include scientific sources mixed with articles and my own conclusions."



posted on Dec, 10 2018 @ 05:13 PM
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originally posted by: ICycle2
A bit lazy and that is about a days work. That is why I opened the post with
"This article is based on facts mostly quoted from Wikipedia but include scientific sources mixed with articles and my own conclusions."


Oh I completely understand, I think it’s a brilliant read.

Thanks for sharing.




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