Although hops were previously thought to be inert ingredients, recent evidence suggests they contain biologically active compounds that restart
the fermentation process and alter the final composition of beer. Thomas Shellhammer and Kaylyn Kirkpatrick wanted to identify the source of these
The researchers dry-hopped a commercial beer and showed this boosted its carbon dioxide (CO2) and alcohol content, while lowering its carbohydrate
content. They found that the activity of starch-degrading enzymes associated with hops—including amyloglucosidase, α-amylase, β-amylase and
dextrinase—altered the composition of carbohydrates in the beer, shifting the balance to more fermentable sugars and thus increasing the alcohol
phys.org - 'Hoppy' beer without exploding bottles and too much alcohol
Fully attenuated and packaged commercial lager beer was dry-hopped at a rate of 10 g hops/L beer with pelletized Cascade hops, dosed with
106 cells/mL of ale yeast, and incubated at 20 °C. Real extract of the treated beer declined significantly within several days with a reduction of 1
°P (% w/w) after 5 days and then slowly to a total reduction of approximately 2 °P after 40 days. When fully fermented, this was equivalent to the
production of an additional 4.75% (v/v) of CO2 and an additional 1.3% (v/v) of alcohol. The refermentation of beer driven by dry-hopping was
attributed to the low but persistent activities of several starch degrading enzymes present in Cascade hops including amyloglucosidase, α-amylase,
β-amylase, and limit dextrinase. The effect of hop-derived enzymes on beer was time, temperature, and dose-dependent. Characterizing bioactive
enzymes in hops will help hop suppliers and brewers to address the unexpected quality and safety issues surrounding hopping practices in beer.
pubs.acs.org - Evidence of Dextrin Hydrolyzing Enzymes in Cascade Hops (Humulus
Now I am convinced that phys.org is punking me! I had a feeling it might
have been happening before but chalked it up to mere coincidence; a
curiosity of happenstance where the Meta manifest into the realm of the living. Universe has a sense of humor, it seems! I would ponder and wax
poetically about black holes and how they might be the center where all matter in the galaxy is magically entangled and resonates with the equivalent
of earth's Schumann resonance then, a few days to a week later, an article would pop up magically and appear on phys.org where an actual, real
physicist has a theory stating the same.
This one takes the cake!
First, there are not enough face palms to go around on this one! Not even the one where Picard and Number One are face palming at the same time!! I
almost do not know where to begin. At least phys.org had the beer making process correct: starches in barley are converted sugars during the mashing
process. The resulting liquid is at that stage called "wort". It is sticky, hot, and not a lot of flavor. That is where hops come in. Each style of
beer uses different varieties of hops, at different stages of boiling the wort. That is because hops release their oils into the wort depending how
long they are in contact with the liquid. The wort is cooled down to fermentation temperatures and yeast is added. The sweet, bitter liquid is, at the
moment of pitching, technically "beer."
The yeast is allowed to ferment out the beer until the desired remaining sugar level. The flat, warm beer, is drawn off the yeast. Yeast will
cannibalize each other if there is no food available which will give off flavors to the beer. The remaining yeast floating around run out of flood and
sink to bottom of the secondary fermenter. To make beer, draw off the beer from the yeast sediment and force carbonate (bottles or kegs).
In the secondary fermentation tank, whole hops
can be added to impart more hoppy goodness. Flat beer that has not been carbonated. This is
called "dry hopping" and it adds hop aroma and some bitterness depending on how long it sits. Since this is a fermenter, any more CO2 escapes through
an air lock. Dry hopping does not increase alcohol content. Unless there are anaerobic bacteria on the buds themselves the alcohol content is not
going to shoot through the roof. Which, if you read the abstract, you will notice they added yeast back to the bottled beer!!
As a homebrewer, one of the very first things you try is to make crappy beer better by adding hops to it. Pop the top off Bud Light, add hops, and the
thing fizzes and foams everywhere. No hoppy flavors are added. And no, you did not just "dry hop" your beer.
10g of hop Cascade pellets! Oh, my!! Smh. Per 5 gallon (~3.8L), you would add a quarter ounce (~28/4 = 7) so about 7g depending on how hoppy you want
it. 10g/L is good one!! *laughs out loud*
I have to ask, "how much did you get paid to do this so called research?" You could have saved your money, asked me, given me half your salary and I
would have told you what happens. Then you get a paper published and I got me some beer and pizza money!!
What a waste of good, off the shelf, lager!
Any homebrewers out there?? I hope you enjoy the laugh as much as I do!! Both the headline and the "research"!!
edit on 19-9-2018 by TEOTWAWKIAIFF because: kelsey grammar