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“This patent protects our key technology,” commented HyperSolar’s CEO Tim Young. “With the grant from the European patent office along with existing grants from Australia and the US, and notice of allowance in China, HyperSolar has taken major steps to protect its intellectual property that has the potential to provide widespread access to low-cost green hydrogen to the largest markets in the world. The nanoparticle solar cell is highly-efficient, ultra-thin and light-weight. This enables versatile applications of the solar hydrogen production device from small to large scale.”
To help meet this growing need, the public and private sector are devoting resources into research, development, and large-scale deployment of both conventional and renewable hydrogen generation. The U.S. Department of Energy launched its H2@Scale initiative to bring together the National Laboratories, industry, utilities and other stakeholders to advance wide-scale hydrogen production, storage, and utilisation for both the stationary and transportation sectors. Industrial gas companies are investing heavily in both new and expanded facilities in the U.S., including a $150 million world-scale liquid hydrogen production plant by Air Liquide in the Western U.S.; two new liquid hydrogen production plants in Texas and California by Air Products; a new hydrogen production facility in Delaware from the Linde Group; and a $40 million expansion to a United Hydrogen plant in Tennessee.
originally posted by: TEOTWAWKIAIFF
BBC has an article up about the Orkney Islands in Scotland. They went "green" around the islands putting up wind turbines and even a current/wave one! They thought they could use the energy they needed and sell their excess back to the grid and supplement their income.
Our purpose in producing ammonia is precisely that it can be burned as a liquid fuel. In the original application of the project, it was intended to prove ammonia as a liquid fuel by rebuilding a ships combustion engine to operate on ammonia. It’s quite a revolutionary feat to manage that. Very high-efficiency is desired, so there are still a number of lab experiments to be carried out that will reveal how close we can get to theoretical limits of ammonia production, and we therefore have to divide the application into several stages. The application we have been granted now will be used to prove a radical energy-efficient production of ammonia only on the basis of electricity, water and air. When this is in place, we will build engines that prove that we have found the Egg of Columbus, and finally have a carbon free solution for heavy traffic (ships, trains and the like). We will also show that ammonia can be converted back to electricity using fuel cells in this project. It can be done incredibly energy-efficient, but we do it first and foremost to show the potential of ammonia as an energy carrier, and not so much to revolutionize electricity production in general.
-Christian Dannesboe, Phd. student, Aarhus University
The furnace at the heart of a conventional reformer contains over 100 reactor tubes, each more than 10 m long and loaded with a nickel catalyst. The reformer generates 6.6–9.3 metric tons (t) of CO2 for every metric ton of hydrogen created, and 17–41% of that CO2 comes from fuel combustion. The process is responsible for about half the world’s annual production of 60 million t of hydrogen, used in petroleum refining and in the production of ammonia and methanol.
It is also hugely inefficient. The poor thermal conductivity of the reactor tubes and catalyst means that temperatures drop sharply toward the center of the tubes, stalling the reaction and forming carbon as a by-product. The temperature gradient across the tube can also cause thermal stresses that shorten reactor lifetime.
In contrast, electrical heating keeps the temperature fairly constant across the tube and catalyst. The prototype reformer uses a single tube of iron-chromium-aluminum alloy 0.5 m long and 6 mm wide, with a 130 µm thick internal coating of porous zirconia impregnated with nickel. An alternating current running through the tube heats it up to 800 °C, exploiting the same kind of resistance heating used in incandescent light-bulb filaments. Fed a mixture of methane, water, and a dash of hydrogen, it produces almost 1 m3 of syngas per hour. “It’s very good research by a very good team,” says Guy B. Marin at Ghent University, who models and designs industrial chemical processes, and was not involved in the work. “Haldor Topsoe is a world leader in this field, so the fact they are considering this alternative way of providing heat to the process is significant.” Mortensen and his colleagues found that about 20% of the nickel’s active catalytic sites were involved in the reforming reaction, far more than the 3-5% catalyst utilization of a conventional reactor. “That’s a huge improvement,” Mortensen says. The system also uses a lot less nickel than a comparable gas-fired reformer and curbs carbon-forming side reactions.
The researchers calculate that if their system were scaled up, a 5-m3 unit could achieve the same hydrogen production as a 1,100-m3 conventional steam-methane reformer. They are now planning a demonstration-scale unit. The potential savings of building much smaller reformers could make this a big hit, Marin says: “That’s the key to innovation in our industry: Can you introduce a new technology on a small scale without losing money?”
Today (June 18, 2019) at the first National Hydrogen Mobility Innovation Conference in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, Hydrofuel announced a commercial demonstration of diesel fueled generators and trucks converted to run on NH3 fuel.
Over the course of 3 years, two diesel fueled generators and transport trucks will be converted to use Hydrofuel ammonia fuel.
The generators and transport trucks to be converted will be provided by TFX International, a Toronto-based company.
These generators and trucks will use Hydrofuel Inc.’s, Ammonia Solutions aftermarket multi-fuels engine retrofit systems for low emission combination of diesel and ammonia fuel, as well as zero emission hydrogen oxygen assisted NH3 fuel.