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Finer Structure of the
Hawaiian Mantle Plume: Relation
to the Earth’s deep mantle - (direct .pdf link)
The new, high-resolution map of the mantle–the hot rock below Earth’s crust but above the planet’s iron core–not only shows these connections for many hotspots on the planet, but reveals that below about 1,000 kilometers the plumes are between 600 and 1,000 kilometers across, up to five times wider than geophysicists thought. The plumes are likely at least 400 degrees Celsius hotter than surrounding rock.
“These columns are clearly separated in the lower mantle and they go all the way up to about 1,000 kilometers below the surface, but then they start to thin out in the upper part of the mantle, and they meander and deflect,” she said. “So while the tops of the plumes are associated with hotspot volcanoes, they are not always vertically under them.”
so in layman's terms what do you guys think is happening any future explosive eruptions?
does the volcanic activity have anything to do with the sun?
We have shown that on both secular (Gleissberg) and decadal (11-year solar cycle) time-scales, there is a connection between solar activity and seismic activity. There are more earthquakes in the secular solar maxima than at lower solar activity. Two maxima in the number of earthquakes are observed in the 11-year solar cycle—a higher one in sunspot maximum, and a secondary one on the descending phase of the cycle. The variations in seismic activity relative to solar activity are the same as the variations in geomagnetic activity, so probably the factors influencing them are the same. We have identified two solar activity agents responsible for triggering earthquakes: coronal mass ejections which are the cause of the greatest geomagnetic disturbances around sunspot maximum, and high speed solar wind from solar coronal holes which lead to the second geomagnetic activity maximum in the sun-spot cycle. Coronal mass ejections lead to numerous weaker earthquakes at sunspot maximum, while high speed solar wind triggers the strongest earthquakes on the descending phase of the sunspot cycle.
(1) Most of great earthquakes tend to occur during descending and minimum phase of solar cycles.
(2) 70 % of the Great EQ events (M=6-9) observed during the period within 4 days (before and after) of the arrival of High Speed Solar Wind (HSSW).
(3) Number of EQs occurred at 0 to 40 km depth during the solar minimum phase, and a few events at deeper-depth from 40 to 100km.
(4) The shallow earthquakes from 0 to 40km show a higher correlation with HSSW on the day to 3 days after the HSSW arrived to the earth, compared to the deep EQs.