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Dogs were domesticated, probably through two or more independent lines, in Europe and the Middle East some 10,000 to 12,000 years ago (Turnbull and Reed 1974; Davis and Valla 1978; Benecke 1987). Evidence suggests that they were ultimately derived from wolves (Canis lupus), although the origin of actual parent population(s) has been the subject of controversy ...
Most scientists had previously argued the domestication of dogs, from tamed wolves, began with the rise of agriculture, 10,000 years ago, though other research has suggested it began earlier, around 15,000 years ago ...
We find that none of the wolf lineages from the hypothesized domestication centers is supported as the source lineage for dogs, and that dogs and wolves diverged 11,000–16,000 years ago in a process involving extensive admixture and that was followed by a bottleneck in wolves. ...
"The genetic data strongly suggest that the wolf is the progenitor of the domestic dog," Wayne says. Dog gene sequences differ from those of wolves by at most 12 nucleotide substitutions, whereas dog sequences differ from coyote and jackal sequences by at least 20 substitutions and two insertions. Coyotes and jackals are thus "very different [genetically] from wolves and dogs,," Wayne says ...
"Nowadays, based on a growing body of anatomical, genetic, and behavioral evidence, most experts believe that the dog originatedexclusively from a single species: the gray wolf, Canis lupus," Serpell told Life's Little Mysteries. ...
For example, several different geographical regions have been proposed as the birthplace of domestic dogs, and the date of divergence between wolves and dogs has been estimated between 32 000 years ago and 10 000 years ago6,8,9,10, with relatively weak gene flows found between these two groups since their divergence4,6,7,9. The exact history of dog domestication thus remains to be fully resolved...
But Shipman places it before the last Ice Age, pointing to recent discoveries of 33,000-year-old fossil remains of dogs in Siberia and Belgium. Although they look quite like wolves, the fossils also show clear signs of domestication: snouts that are shorter, jaws that are wider and teeth that are more crowded than those of a wild wolf...
a team led by Olaf Thalmann from the University of Turku in Finland analyzed mitochondrial DNA from 18 fossil canids. They compared these ancient sequences to those from 49 modern wolves and 77 modern dogs, and built a family tree that charts their relationships.
The tree conclusively pinpointed Europe as the major nexus of dog domestication. It identified four clades of modern dogs, which are all most closely related to ancient European canids rather than wolves from China or the Middle East. “We didn’t expect the ancestry to be so clearly defined,” Thalmann told The Scientist.
“This suggests that the population of wolves in Europe that gave rise to modern dogs may have gone extinct, which is plausible given how humans have wiped out wolves over the centuries,” he added.
According to this new tree, the largest clade of domestic dogs last shared a common ancestor 18,800 years ago, and collectively, they last shared a common ancestor with a wolf around 32,100 years ago. They must have been domesticated at some point during this window.
These molecular dates fit with fossil evidence. The oldest dog fossils come from Western Europe and Siberia, and are thought to be at least 15,000 years old. By contrast, those from the Middle East and East Asia are believed to be 13,000 years old, at most. “The archaeologists would be happy,” said Larson.
The dates also make it unlikely that dogs were domesticated during the Agricultural Revolution, which took place millennia later. Instead, they must have first associated with European hunter-gatherers. They may have assisted humans in bringing down large prey, or could simply have scavenged leftover carcasses. Either way, their association with humans grew stronger and stronger, until they eventually evolved into domestic dogs ...
This point, if it could be cleared up, would be interesting; if, for instance, it could be shown that the grey-hound, bloodhound, terrier, spaniel, and bull-dog, which we all know propagate their kind so truly, were the offspring of any single species, then such facts would have great weight in making us doubt about the immutability of the many very closely allied and natural species
The whole subject must, I think, remain vague; nevertheless, I may, without here entering on any details, state that, from geographical and other considerations, I think it highly probable that our domestic dogs have descended from several wild species ...
The old Raymond Coppinger hypothesis on dog domestication, which posits that the dog evolved from the wolf during the early days of agriculture. According to this hypothesis, the dog is a self-domesticating animal that evolved solely from wolves losing their fear of humans in order to scavenge from our trash heaps. The logic here is that starches were only a big part of the human diet only when we began to farm, and if dogs have these adaptations, then it must mean that they were domesticated in agrarian societies...
Some scientists blame climate change. Most argue that modern humans – armed with superior skills and weapons – were responsible. Shipman agrees with the latter scenario, but adds a twist. We had an accomplice: the wolf.
Modern humans formed an alliance with wolves soon after we entered Europe, argues Shipman. We tamed some and the dogs we bred from them were then used to chase prey and to drive off rival carnivores, including lions and leopards, that tried to steal the meat.
“Early wolf-dogs would have tracked and harassed animals like elk and bison and would have hounded them until they tired,” said Shipman. “Then humans would have killed them with spears or bows and arrows.
“This meant the dogs did not need to approach these large cornered animals to finish them off – often the most dangerous part of a hunt – while humans didn’t have to expend energy in tracking and wearing down prey. Dogs would have done that. Then we shared the meat. It was a win-win situation”...
originally posted by: kelbtalfenek
a reply to: blend57
First off, thanks for this thread.
Secondly; it has been shown that breeding for personality traits (neoteny, and non-aggression) can change physical characteristics of canids. Russian fox experiment I'm surprised why this didn't show up in your research, as it's very important to understanding the "why" of how dogs don't look like wolves anymore.
Some of the sighthound breeds are amongst the oldest known companion/hunting animals. Sighthounds and primitive... with cave paintings showing them participating in hunts.
I think the answers lie more in the behaviors of the more primitive dogs; basenji, azawakh and other African sighthounds. You can see in their behaviors a certain interdependence with their humans...the dogs have the speed, the mobility, the senses to provide security in the form of loud barking and aggression, as well as chasing down wounded prey, or the stamina required in chasing down prey that is too fast for humans to even approach within weapon distance.
originally posted by: Lysergic
a reply to: blend57
Watched a decent documentary you might like
And Man Created Dog
Wolves > Camp Wolves > Proto Dog.
originally posted by: TNMockingbird
a reply to: blend57
Interesting information Blend.
Love my doxle.
Which hypothesis do you subscribe to?
Interesting that there seems to be some similarities (I may be making connections up) between the domestication of dogs and cats.
I checked out the page. It looks like it'll be an awesome movie. And I hope at least a few sources are helpful to you. Thanks!
originally posted by: AugustusMasonicus
a reply to: blend57
this has been an area of interest for me for some time. I'm going to dig into some of your sources to learn more.
There's a movie coming out in February called Alpha which is a dramatized origin story of the 'first dog'. The trailer looked interesting and it appears they go with the latter hypothesis that it began earlier prior to agrarian society.
Professor Ludvic von Schulmuth studied canine origins by studying the skeletal remains of dogs found in human settlements as old as the Paleolithic (about 10,000 years ago). Much as physical anthropologists have traced the evolution of man through such studies, the Professor created a genealogical tree of Tibetan dogs.
It shows that the “Gobi Desert Kitchen Midden Dog” (i.e., scavenger) evolved into the “Small Soft-Coated Drop-Eared Hunting Dog” which then evolved into the Tibetan Spaniel followed by the Pekingese and Japanese Chin. Another branch coming down from the “Kitchen Midden Dog” (but not the same branch as the Tibbie) gave rise to the Papillon and Long-haired Chihuahua and yet another “Kitchen Midden Dog” branch to the Pug and Shih Tzu. The Professor places the Lhasa Apso, Tibetan Terrier and Tibetan Mastiff elsewhere, coming not from the “Kitchen Midden Dog” but from the “Large Spitz-Type Dog” which evolved into the “Heavy-Headed Dog that Moved North.”
The truth is that no one knows nor is it likely that we will ever know for sure when and how the Tibetan breeds evolved. Even if we accept that Professor von Schulmuth’s genealogy is correct, I believe strongly that the Tibetan dogs intermixed, even as they do in Tibet today and certainly must have throughout history!!