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The biggest anticipated cost of a North Korean artillery barrage in response to an attack would be the at least partial destruction of Seoul. But the volume of fire that the North can direct against the South Korean capital is limited by some important factors. Of the vast artillery force deployed by the North along the border, only a small portion — Koksan 170-mm self-propelled guns, as well as 240-mm and 300-mm multiple launch rocket systems — are capable of actually reaching Seoul. Broadly speaking, the bulk of Pyongyang's artillery can reach only into the northern border area of South Korea or the northern outskirts of Seoul.
All forms of North Korean artillery have problems with volume and effectiveness of fire, but those issues are often more pronounced for the longer-range systems. Problems include the high malfunction rate of indigenous ammunition, poorly trained artillery crews, and a reluctance to expend critical artillery assets by exposing their positions.
This isn't the only source either. Just google "North Korean artillery can't reach Seoul" and you'll find multiple sources.
One of the most credible weapons available to the North Koreans in a war with South Korea and the United States is Pyongyang's large commando and sabotage force. The North Koreans, for decades aware of their growing conventional imbalance with the South, have invested heavily in the asymmetric capability that a commando force brings to the table.
Capable of being inserted into South Korea through tunnels, submersibles and aircraft such as the low-signature Antonov An-2, specialized North Korean commando units could wreak havoc in the South by attacking key infrastructure, logistics nodes, and command-and-control facilities. These attacks, when combined with other conventional and asymmetric strikes, can paralyze economic activity and would almost certainly lead to the diversion of a disproportionate amount of resources and personnel to track down and eliminate the units.
originally posted by: face23785
a reply to: DexterRiley
I am glad you did some reading with an open mind. I know the "hundreds of thousands of South Koreans will die" fetishists will mostly ignore my post, but if just one person learns something, I consider that mission accomplished. Also, I by no means meant to minimize the impact. One South Korean citizen or soldier dying is a tragedy. I simply wanted to point out the media completely oversells what would actually happen.