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Based on the presence of mantle xenocrysts, the high concentration of incompatible elements, the spatial and chem-ical affinity with other ocean island basalts from the area, and the relative age of the basalt (overlain by late Campanian sediments), it is suggested that Maud Rise was probably generated by hot-spot activity, possible during a ridge crest jump prior to 84 Ma (anomaly 34 time).
This story is not about glacial ice.
The ice melt and sliding of glaciers has been linked to volcanic activity at the south pole.
Sea levels are not dropping.
Anyway, enjoy the approaching ice age and if you have beach front property you're going to get some extra property as sea levels continue to drop.
"Most global ocean observations acquire measurements in the open ocean or in the top layers of the water, while our research shows that important mixing processes may be occurring in the deep ocean in thin layers over sloping topography," says senior author Andrew Thompson, professor of environmental science and engineering at Caltech.
Thompson and his colleagues deployed two autonomous underwater drones, or "gliders," for a period of eight months over the course of a year and a half in the Southern Ocean, which encircles Antarctica. The team concentrated on the region around Drake Passage, the 1,000-kilometer-wide waterway between Antarctica and South America.
The gliders were able to reach depths of 1,000 meters—nearly scraping the bottom at times. They carry instruments to measure temperature, salinity, the quantity of various nutrients like nitrogen and iron, and other variables. When the gliders come to the surface, they regularly relay this data back to Thompson and his colleagues. In this way, they were able to document strong mixing occurring in thin layers in the waters near the "edges" of the coastline, where ocean currents rub up against the rising continental mass of Antarctica.
"There is growing evidence that topography plays a bigger role in oceanographic mixing than we had previously suspected," says lead author Xiaozhou Ruan, a Caltech graduate student. "While this boundary region represents a small fraction of the ocean, the interaction between water and continental topography plays an outsized role in mixing."
The Maud-Rise Polynya was spotted in mid September 2017 in the center of an ice pack in Antarctica's Lazarev Sea, causing researchers to question how this phenomenon occurred during Antarctica's coldest, winter months when ice is at its thickest.
Due to its difficult access location, NYUAD scientists used a combination of satellite observations and reanalysis data to discover that cyclones (as intense as category 11 in the Beaufort Scale) and the strong winds that they carry over the ice pack cause ice to shift in opposite directions, which leads to the opening of the Polynya.
This study examines the role of atmospheric forcings in the occurrence of open‐ocean polynyas by investigating the case of the austral winter 2017's polynya located in the Lazarev Sea sector to the east of the Weddell Sea, known as the Maud Rise polynya. The ice‐free zone appeared in mid‐September 2017 and grew to as large as 80,000 square kilometers by the end of October 2017 before merging with the open ocean after the sea ice started to retreat at the beginning of the austral summer. Using a combination of satellite observations and reanalysis data at high spatio‐temporal resolution, we found that severe cyclones, occurring over the ice pack, have a deterministic role in creating strong divergence in the sea ice field through strong cyclonic surface‐winds leading to the opening of the polynya. The occurrence of intense and frequent cyclones over the ice pack during austral winter 2017 was unusual, and it occurred under an enhanced strong positive meridional transport of heat flux and moisture toward Antarctica associated with an amplification of the atmospheric zonal wave 3 and a strong positive SAM index.
We found that the opening of the polynya was not primarily due to direct ice melt by thermodynamic effects but rather to strong dynamical forcing by the winds on the sea ice, as in the case of coastal polynyas. Indeed, the meridional transport of heat toward Antarctica occurred over the Weddell Sea sector (i.e. to the east of the Lazarev Sea sector where the polynya is located) whereas the Lazarev Sea sector was under the influence of equatorward transport of cold air masses at that time. Our results show that the supply of warm and moist air coming from the west side of the South Atlantic Ocean into the Weddell Sea, significantly increased the potential for cyclone formation as measured by the Eady growth rate leading to intense and frequent cyclogenesis over the ice pack, far south from the ice edge. After cyclogenesis in the Weddell Sea, these cyclones intensified as they moved eastward spinning over the Lazarev Sea with intensity comparable to category 11 ‐ violent storms ‐ in the Beaufort scale. The cyclonic winds generated sea ice divergence by pushing the ice away from the cyclone center: to the east north of it and to the west south of it, which led the reoccurrence of the Maud Rise polynya in mid‐September 2017.
originally posted by: Reverbs
a reply to: the2ofusr1
You got me..
And now I'm hearing way more about Antarctica than before and I'm perplexed..
There are these oasis areas in many locations very close to the Southpole that have warm air circulating .. Russia and us put lots of equipment in these areas..
Scientist named Behrendt came across a lake with pinkish flowers growing in it..
I'm seeing at least 3 probably many mire of these about 200 square like areas of warm weather.. soil getting up to 77 degrees..
It's from this video.. would be weird if the warm areas are are related to the sea ice hole..