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originally posted by: micpsi
Most dark matter is the E8-singlet state of E8xE8' heterotic superstrings. It is invisible and confined to a parallel space-time sheet separated from the space-time sheet containing ordinary (visible) matter (E8'-singlet states) by a narrow gap extending along the 10th dimension of space predicted by M-theory. Only gravity acts across this gap. It is the glue that holds together a rotating galaxy.
Ordinary matter, or "baryons," make up all physical objects in existence, from stars to the cores of black holes. But until now, astrophysicists had only been able to locate about two-thirds of the matter that theorists predict was created by the Big Bang.
In the new research, an international team pinned down the missing third, finding it in the space between galaxies. That lost matter exists as filaments of oxygen gas at temperatures of around 1 million degrees Celsius, said CU Boulder's Michael Shull, a co-author of the study.
The finding is a major step for astrophysics. "This is one of the key pillars of testing the Big Bang theory: figuring out the baryon census of hydrogen and helium and everything else in the periodic table," said Shull of the Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences (APS).
The new study, which will appear June 20 in Nature[...]
The team found the signatures of a type of highly-ionized oxygen gas lying between the quasar and our solar system—and at a high enough density to, when extrapolated to the entire universe, account for the last 30 percent of ordinary matter.
"We found the missing baryons," Shull said.
originally posted by: TEOTWAWKIAIFF
How in the vastness of space do you measure something you can't detect?
Based on a statistical analysis of 740 of the brightest supernovas discovered as of 2014, and the fact that none of them appear to be magnified or brightened by hidden black hole "gravitational lenses," the researchers concluded that primordial black holes can make up no more than about 40 percent of the dark matter in the universe.
Their conclusions are based on the fact that an unseen population of primordial black holes, or any massive compact object, would gravitationally bend and magnify light from distant objects on its way to Earth. Therefore, gravitational lensing should affect the light from distant Type Ia supernovas. These are the exploding stars that scientists have used as standard brightness sources to measure cosmic distances and document the expansion of the universe.
"You cannot see this effect on one supernova, but when you put them all together and do a full Bayesian analysis you start putting very strong constraints on the dark matter, because each supernova counts and you have so many of them," Zumalacárregui said. The more supernovas included in the analysis, and the farther away they are, the tighter the constraints. Data on 1,048 bright supernovas from the Pantheon catalog provided an even lower upper limit—23 percent—than the newly published analysis.