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Dan Li a Lucija Tomljenovic a Yongling Li a Christopher A.Shaw abc
Dept. of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Program in Experimental Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Program in Neuroscience, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Received 22 January 2017, Revised 30 August 2017, Accepted 31 August 2017, Available online 5 September 2017.
Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by immune dysfunction. It is manifested in early childhood, during a window of early developmental vulnerability where the normal developmental trajectory is most susceptible to xenobiotic insults. Aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants are xenobiotics with immunostimulating and neurotoxic properties to which infants worldwide are routinely exposed. To investigate Al′s immune and neurotoxic impact in vivo, we tested the expression of 17 genes which are implicated in both autism and innate immune response in brain samples of Al-injected mice in comparison to control mice. Several key players of innate immunity, such as cytokines CCL2, IFNG and TNFA, were significantly upregulated, while the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) inhibitor NFKBIB, and the enzyme controlling the degradation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACHE), were downregulated in Al-injected male mice. Further, the decrease of the NF-κB inhibitor and the consequent increase in inflammatory signals, led to the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway resulting in the release of chemokine MIP-1A and cytokines IL-4 and IL-6. It thus appears that Al triggered innate immune system activation and altered cholinergic activity in male mice, observations which are consistent with those in autism. Female mice were less susceptible to Al exposure as only the expression levels of NF-κB inhibitor and TNFA were altered. Regional patterns of gene expression alterations also exhibited gender differences, as frontal cortex was the most affected area in males and cerebellum in females. Thus, Al adjuvant promotes brain inflammation and males appear to be more susceptible to Al′s toxic effects.
originally posted by: Blue Shift
After all these years of being told that aluminum is a likely contributor to Alzheimer's Disease? No thankee.
You know that mice are not human, right?
Yet another research which proves that aluminum adjuvants promote brain inflammation, and the results state that males are more susceptible to the toxic effects of Aluminum.
Basically, what we have is yet another mouse study of autism. The study purports to show that aluminum adjuvants cause some sort of “neuroinflammation,” which, it is assumed, equals autism. By even the most charitable interpretation, the best that can be said for this study is that it might show increased levels of proteins associated with inflammation in the brains of mice who had been injected with aluminum adjuvant way more frequently than human babies ever would be. Whether this has anything to do with autism is highly questionable. At best, what we have here are researchers with little or no expertise in very basic molecular biology techniques using old methodology that isn’t very accurate overinterpreting the differences in gene and protein levels that they found. At worst, what we have are antivaccine “researchers” who are not out for scientific accuracy but who actually want to promote the idea that vaccines cause autism.
Medicines and vaccines
The discovery and development of new medicines, vaccines and medical devices for people and animals is a long and complex process with a number of stages, many of which involve animal experiments. National and international regulations currently require that new medicines are tested on animals before being licensed for use. Around 5 million animals including mice, rats, fish, chickens, rabbits, dogs and primates are used across the EU for this purpose each year.
originally posted by: Phage
a reply to: ElectricUniverse
This experiment was not a test of a new medicine. Those protocols are quite different
Which animals are suitable analogs for human neurobiology? And what reason is there to believe that, even if there were inflammation of mouse brains, it has anything to do with autism?
Diagnosed autism linked to maternal grandmother's smoking in pregnancy
Scientists have looked at all 14,500 participants in Children of the 90s and found that if a girl's maternal grandmother smoked during pregnancy, the girl is 67 percent more likely to display certain traits linked to autism, such as poor social communication skills and repetitive behaviors.
Not exactly true.
the girl is 67 percent more likely to display certain traits linked to autism
The results give quite a confusing and mixed picture. Girls whose grandmothers had smoked in pregnancy had increased likelihood of certain traits such as poor social communication skills and repetitive behaviours.
However, this link was only found if the girl's own mother had not smoked in pregnancy. And there was no such link for grandsons, although there was an increased likelihood of grandsons being diagnosed with autism if their grandmother smoked.
The study failed to look at a plethora of other factors that could potentially play a role in autism spectrum disorders. These include parent and child diet, parental alcohol consumption, exercise, weight and genetic influences.