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ISS Science for Everyone
Science Objectives for Everyone
Two previous missions documented the involvement of lipid signaling molecules called endocannabinoids in production of human immune cells. This Italian Space Agency investigation, Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Pluripotent Human Stem Cell Reprogramming under Microgravity Conditions (SERISM), evaluates the role of this system in bone metabolism changes seen in microgravity. Astronauts experience bone loss on extended missions and the identification of novel biomarkers that are involved during osteogenic differentiation in microgravity of an innovative stem cell model could contribute to ways of countering that loss.
Science Results for Everyone
The following content was provided by Mauro Maccarrone, Ph.D., M.S., and is maintained in a database by the ISS Program Science Office.
OpNom: Reprogramming Stem Cells
Principal Investigator(s) Mauro Maccarrone, Ph.D., M.S., University of Rome Biomedical Campus, Rome, Italy
Co-Investigator(s)/Collaborator(s) Information Pending
Developer(s) Kayser Italia Srl., Livorno, Italy
Sponsoring Space Agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Sponsoring Organization Italian Space Agency (ASI)
Research Benefits Scientific Discovery
ISS Expedition Duration April 2017 - September 2017; September 2017 - February 2018
Expeditions Assigned 51/52,53/54
Previous Missions Information Pending
The goals of the Role of the Endocannabinoid System in Pluripotent Human Stem Cell Reprogramming under Microgravity Conditions (SERISM) investigation are:
• Identification of biomarkers to be exploited in contrasting bone loss in space using an innovative stem cell model. Indeed, bone loss is a major thread to astronauts’ health during (extended) space missions.
• Evaluation of the role of the endocannabinoid system in the alterations of bone metabolism in microgravity.
• Identification of a novel therapeutic target for bone regeneration under microgravity conditions.
Description Information Pending
Space Applications This investigation, by helping to identify biomarkers involved in microgravity induced bone loss in an innovative stem cell model, contributes to development of therapies for bone regeneration in space.
Earth Applications The abnormal physiology seen in otherwise healthy astronauts during their adaptation to space has many similarities with accelerated aging, including bone loss. On Earth, older people experience bone loss and fractures: both representing a serious health concern. This investigation could contribute to better treatment for this and other disabling conditions caused by aging.
Operational Requirements and Protocols Information Pending
Decadal Survey Recommendations Information Pending
Results/More Information Information Pending
originally posted by: madmac5150
There are SO many things that I want to say... I would probably be banned.
I just wonder if there will be a "NASA Payload Specialist Tommy Chong"?
..."NASA Mission Commander Willie Nelson"...?
There are infinite reasons why NASA has sustained interest in mining the Heliosphere for discoveries and benefits for humanity to bring back to Earth, perhaps even unfolding the secrets to sustaining life for as long as possible. The International Space Station (ISS) is an unprecedented human achievement, the orbiting laboratory provides a unique microgravity environment to conduct multidisciplinary research and technology development that drives space exploration, basic discovery, and transformative Earth benefits. The ISS is the size of a football field orbiting around Earth once every ninety minutes at 17,000 mph, 400 km above Earth. Inside the ISS, the human body is in a constant state of free-fall that gives the appearance of being weightless in the microgravity environment. Intuitively, it is understood that spinning around Earth in this fashion provides many reasons why humans are not equipped for such space explorations. However, formulating a connection with the indigenous angiosperms from Central Asia and South Asia Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis have catalyzed an answer for eliminating high spaceflight risks for devoted NASA astronauts. These flowers have led to the discovery of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS), which could prove to be a very insightful neuroimmunological target of investigation.
Before space tourism becomes an objective reality, these high spaceflight risks must be addressed and one way to accelerate this process would be to begin a working towards a healthy dialog of truths discovered by medicinal cannabis research and technology development. The ECS is a potentially revolutionary answer to many future studies to be conducted on the ISS. The discovery of the ECS was a direct result of the genus Cannabis and its phytocannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBN). THC molecules bind like a lock and key to plasma membrane embedded cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2). These receptors are the most abundant G-protein coupled receptor in the mammalian brain. It is known to also mediate neuroimmunological communication. Organically, the biosynthetic production of these little complicated machines, the endocannabinoids (i.e. bioactive lipids that bind to fatty acid binding proteins, or FABPs) like Anandamide (AEA) and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are in every living animal except insects. The ECS is indeed evolutionary very ancient. It is a multidimensional neuroimmunomodulator controlling neurotransmitters and metabolites. During acute stress, the ECS communicates between the hypothalamus (i.e. major hub of synaptic traffic) and the adrenals, causing levels of 2-AG to go down in hypothalamus, and levels of corticosterone go up in the adrenals. The opposite is true for chronic stress, this system is very specific and requires ideal spatial and temporal signaling. This is why Dr. Vincenzo Di Marzo has characterized them with “Good cop, Bad cop” roles within the body.
Overall ECS Programs:
Thermoregulation, Pain/Nociception modulation, Fear-Learning, appropriate stress responses (fight-or-flight/rest-and-digest), regulation of appetite, energy homeostasis, synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation, and even more to be discovered. The cellular communities within the ECS consisting of FABPs and bioactive lipids have been intricately engineered to integrate and communicate with rest of the body.
Therefore, quantifying the mosaic of each individual astronaut’s neurotransmitters and metabolites will be a giant leap towards gathering the knowledge necessary to reverse spaceflight risks. In regards to the ECS, each of its functions is relevant to a NASA astronaut’s journey through microgravity environment missions. They exhibit a lack of appetite, energy imbalance, fear, stress, pain, spinal misalignments, muscle atrophy, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and more not mentioned. Pioneer researchers publishing literature on medicinal cannabis have stretched our imagination with the ingenuity of the ECS. These bioactive lipids and FABPs are all essentially communicating with DNA-binding proteins to express a variety of genes and make epigenetic modifications. These genes can produce a helpful or harmful effect depending on each individual’s programs in place.
originally posted by: Chadwickus
a reply to: M4ngo
You do realise this is about stem cell research, right?
In the not too distant future, humankind will embark on one of its greatest adventures, the travel to distant planets. However, deep space travel is associated with an inevitable exposure to radiation fields. Space-relevant doses of protons elicit persistent disruptions in cognition and neuronal structure. However, whether space-relevant irradiation alters neurotransmission is unknown. Within the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for cognition, perisomatic inhibitory control of pyramidal cells (PCs) is supplied by two distinct cell types, the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1)-expressing basket cells (CB1BCs) and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons (PVINs).
Mice subjected to low-dose proton irradiation were analyzed using electrophysiological, biochemical and imaging techniques months after exposure. In irradiated mice, GABA release from CB1BCs onto PCs was dramatically increased. This effect was abolished by CB1 blockade, indicating that irradiation decreased CB1-dependent tonic inhibition of GABA release. These alterations in GABA release were accompanied by decreased levels of the major CB1 ligand 2-arachidonoylglycerol. In contrast, GABA release from PVINs was unchanged, and the excitatory connectivity from PCs to the interneurons also underwent cell type-specific alterations. These results demonstrate that energetic charged particles at space-relevant low doses elicit surprisingly selective long-term plasticity of synaptic microcircuits in the hippocampus. The magnitude and persistent nature of these alterations in synaptic function are consistent with the observed perturbations in cognitive performance after irradiation, while the high specificity of these changes indicates that it may be possible to develop targeted therapeutic interventions to decrease the risk of adverse events during interplanetary travel.
This work was supported by NASA NSCOR grants NNX10AD59G and NNX15AI22G (to C.L.L. G.N. and I.S.,...)
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions, from stress and memory regulation to vegetative control and immunity. The ECS is considered a central and peripheral stress response system to emotional or physical challenges and acts through endocannabinoids (ECs), which bind to their receptors inducing subsequent effecting mechanisms. In our studies, the ECS responses have been assessed through blood concentrations of the ECs anand- amide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. In parallel, saliva cortisol was determined and the degree of perceived stress was quantified by questionnaires. This report summarizes the reactivity of the ECS in humans subjected to brief periods of kinetic stress and weightlessness during parabolic flights and to prolonged stress exposure during life onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Both conditions resulted in a significant increase in circulating ECs. Under the acute stress during parabolic flights, individuals who showed no evidence of motion sickness were in low-stress conditions and had a significant increase of plasma ECs. In contrast, highly stressed individuals with severe motion sickness had an absent EC response and a massive increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Likewise, chronic but well-tolerated exposure to weightlessness and emotional and environmental stressors on the ISS for 6 months resulted in a sustained increase in EC blood concentrations, which returned to baseline values after the cosmonauts’ return. These preliminary results suggest that complex environmental stressors result in an increase of circulating ECs and that enhanced EC signaling is probably required for adaptation and tolerance under stressful conditions.
Supported by the DLR on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi 50WB0719 and 50WB0919), the European Space Agency (ESA; ELIPS 3 programme), the Russian Space Agency (Ros-cosmos), and the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP). We thank Simone Thomas, Hilde Stenuit, Mark Mouret, Patrik Sundblad, and Eric Istasse (ESA), Galina Vassilieva (IBMP), Clarence Sams and his team (NASA) Didier Chaput (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, France), Ulrike Friedrich, Ulrich Hoffman, and Günther Ruyters (DLR), and Marion Hörl, Andrea Boltendahl, Camilla Ladinig, and Sandra Matzel (Ludwig Maximilian University) for their support and the crews and volunteers (parabolic flights) who have realized these studies with outstanding professionalism.
originally posted by: Chadwickus
a reply to: M4ngo
And no smoking pot anywhere.
I mena this is the point of all your threads about endocannabinoid receptors, right?
You think because it has cannabid in the name it must mean pot...
originally posted by: MuonToGluon
a reply to: Chadwickus
I'm really really hoping that is not where he is going with this, because the EC system has a tad more to do with the regulatory body functions then with just interactions with pot...
originally posted by: JimNasium
a reply to: M4ngo
M4- You might also look into past ATS™ threads w/the cell regeneration product (NDA+)
This included trying for cell regeneration for the trip(s) to Mars. I don't recall if the EndoCannabinoidSystem was included in that/those thread(s)..
I've been taking the NDA+ for about 4 months now and My blood work has improved.. I had lost 70 lbs. and gotten off of 5 Rx. meds. (BigPHarma™ poisons) but My Dr. had voiced concern about My blood work. Now I'm in better shape physically (minus broken back and neck) than when I went through the police academy and when I played pro baseball..