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Fermi Paradox - Communications Problem

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posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 04:22 PM
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In the last installment of Fermi Paradox Solutions, I started talking about the Rare Earth Hypothesis, part 1 specifically, which dealt with how rare Earth Like planets might be. Part two of that solution will deal with the rise of actual intelligence among species evolving on a planet....which just may be something even more rare.

But for now I thought maybe we could skip ahead a little bit and instead discuss Communication and Contact. I saw many posts that pretty much indicated a want to discuss this (and I admit, it can be a lot of fun discussing this), so why not?

For most of this discussion, we'll be assuming that there are intelligent, tool using aliens out there, though the very first part won't.

 




Communication - Why don't we hear the alien Top 40 popular songs?

First, and because I know it's the least popular idea here on ATS so let's get it out of the way, one possible solution to why we don't seem to be picking up alien radio and TV transmissions is simply because there are no aliens out there for us to listen to. Zilch. Zero. Nada.

While even I believe that as big as the universe is there should be SOMETHING out there, there always is this possibility. Just as there is a possibility that the next time I turn on my bathroom light, one of my dogs will suddenly turn into a sack of gold coins. Quantum physics says that there is always that possibility.....it might be a at such low odds that are mind boggling small, but because there IS a possibility, no mater how small, one does exist.

That goes for us humans being all alone in the entire universe. The possibility, no mater how small, exists, there for we'll mention it.

But now that I've mentioned it, let's move on as I know the majority of you out there do not favor that possibility.

 


For most of this discussion, we'll be dealing with Radio Frequency energy (aka RF), which travels at the speed of light. This is pretty much how we communicate in today's world. If you're reading this on your smart phone, it's using RF to talk to a cell tower somewhere. Cable TV that you have at your house comes from the cable company that gets all it's channels through a satellite farm that is using RF to get those channels. Radar systems used by the military, airports and meteorologist are also devices that transmit and receive RF energy. Your microwave oven uses RF energy.

RF energy is electromagnetic energy which travels through a vacuum at 299,792,458 meters per second, or 299,792 kilometers per second, or about 186,000 miles per second.

That's fast, isn't it? Yes....for short distances it's fast enough for us to perceive as instantly moving from point A to B.

However, when we start to increase the distance, while fast, it's no longer something that feels like it happens instantly. Transmissions to and from the Moon take 1.5 seconds. The light from the sun takes 8 1/2 minutes to get here. When you see a flare, it happened over 8 minutes ago.
Right now, it takes the probe New Horizons which is past where Pluto orbits about 4 hours and 25 minutes to transmit to us.

When we start talking about the distances to stars, we no longer measure that distance in miles or kilometers. The numbers are just too big. Instead, we start measuring it by how long it takes light to get there. We do this by saying how far light can travel in a year, and that is almost 57 trillion miles.

Alpha Centauri is at about 4.3 light years away. That means when we look at it, we're seeing how it looked 4.3 years ago. If we were receiving radio or TV transmissions from there, they'd be 4.3 years old.

It works the other way too: let's pretend we have a way to snap our fingers and be instantly teleported in a space ship in orbit around Alpha Centauri:



If we have a super sensitive receiver and pointed it at Earth, any radio and TV we picked up would be from 2013.

Let's do that again. Snap our fingers and now our ship is instantly teleported to Sirius a star just over 8 light years away from us. Again, we point our receiver at Earth and now we're hearing radio and TV transmissions from 2009.

How about Arcturus? It's just over 36 light years away from us. Let's teleport there. When we listen to Earth again, we get radio and TV transmissions from 1981.

One last time. Let's jump to Rigel in the constellation of Orion.. Now we point our receiver at Earth and listen. We hear....nothing. Nothing at all.

Why? Well, Rigel is about 864 light years away.....meaning you're listening to Earth when it was the year 1153 AD. No one on Earth has invented even radio yet....so no one is transmitting anything.

Go out past 100 light years from Earth and you will not hear anything as none of our radio signals have traveled that far yet.

So here then is one of the solutions to the Fermi Paradox: we don't hear anything when we search for signals because alien civilization may be too far away for us to hear them yet. The opposite of that may be true too: we are too far away from anyone to hear us. None of our signals have reached them yet.

There could be a large alien civilization on the other side of our galaxy that includes hundreds of world that they have colonized, who have had radio technology for 5 THOUSAND years!......but we won't hear them. Because they'd be over 100,000 light years away. It will be 95,000 years before their first radio signals reach us.

We can go farther with that still. Nearest large galaxy to us is the Andromeda galaxy.....could be an alien civilization rose up in that galaxy over a million years ago. They've colonized the entire galaxy there! But.......it's 2.5 million light years away. Going to be another 1.5 MILLION years before we hear it.

How about M51 the Whirlpool galaxy.....intelligent aliens there have had a galactic civilization for 10 million years!.....but.....M51 is 23 million light years away....going to be another 13 millions years before we hear their signals.

So the vast distances and the time that signals take to travel is a huge factor to consider. It could be there are many alien civilizations out there....but they are just too far away for us to hear yet, and they may not be close enough to hear us either.

 


Cont. Next Page




posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 04:24 PM
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Signal to Noise Ratio

One thing we should mention is the fact that a lot of Earth's transmissions are reflected back to us and never make away from Earth due to our ionosphere.

There is also the problem of just how weak our signal strength is. A 1 megawatt transmitter sounds like a huge amount of power, but when you consider how much that signal will be attenuated by the time it travels the vast distances of space, not to mention dust and gases it may travel though, you're going to need a pretty sensitive receiver to pick that signal up.

Indeed, this is why programs like SETI have used very large radio telescopes, or very large arrays of dishes, and requires sensitive receivers, else an actual signal will be so weak that we can not tell if it's a signal or the background noise.

Keep in mind that directional signal communications do not broadcast out in a 360 degree area either. Tight Beam communications are not something that are going to be broadcast out into space.

This is why you will never pick up the alien version of the X-Files, where special agents Ytkcxyz and Pkvxvr continue to prove the existence of humans. The signal would be just way too weak for your TV receiver to pick up.

 




We Were Too Late

This is an interesting notion: the aliens were close enough for us to pick up their signals, but they either killed themselves off, were wiped out by some huge disaster, or have simply moved on to some technology that is beyond us for communications so long ago that all their transmissions have passed us by.

This one comes down to the math. Let's say the aliens were about 100 light years away. They invented radio 200 years ago. They made TV and Radio transmissions for 100 years. After that something happened: they killed themselves off, or another planet collided with theirs, snuffing out all life on their planet, or someone invented a doomaflojy, which is some sort of tech that is way more advanced than using RF energy to communications and converted completely over to using the doomaflojy, which transmits in a way we can not detect. Let's say that one of those things happened 100 years ago.

That means that by now, we will no longer detect anything from their system as far as RF transmissions are concerned. If it was a extinction event, we never will. If it was the doomaflojy, then we won't detect them until we invent the doomaflojy ourselves.

 




Telepathy and Telekinesis

This is one of the more "way out there" ideas.....but, while I've never first hand experienced either of these, it's not something I can discount out of hand either. IDIC: Infinite Diversity in Infinite Combinations. For all I know, these things exist.

Imagine that we humans are the strange and backwards ones who us RF energy for communications. Meanwhile all the alien races out there during their evolution developed telepathy and telekinesis.

Why bother going through the trouble of inventing wireless communications when you already have it built in? Instant communication directly from you and to you. And as far as I know, telepathy does not have any speed limit like RF energy does.

As far as I know, we do not have any way to detect telepathy with radio telescopes......or any other device that I'm aware of.

They could still end up being tool building and even develop space travel, controlling everything and communicating with their minds.

The main thing that makes me unsure of this is: from what we see here on Earth, evolution happens because of species having a need to adapt to things. I'm not sure if evolution would go through the trouble of having a species develop what must be very large and powerful brains for telepathy and telekinesis. Brains are very complex energy hogs. Where as a voice box and appendages are cheaper and much less complex to have develop.

Still, this idea was worth putting out there.

 




Leave Us Alone!

It could also be that other alien races are xenophobic. They don't want to have anything to do with the rest of the universe. For whatever reason, they are perfectly happy with being by themselves and not communicating with anyone else. They may even be aware of us and are simply not interested in communicating with us.

It would be pretty hard to hide your transmissions, and also if you're an expanding race, your energy requirements are going to keep going up with more technology and more people (aliens can be people too, right?) that need energy, your race will most likely start tapping into the energy coming from it's star. It's a mind boggling amount of energy a star puts out each second, so tapping into most of it will mean the start of orbiting platforms, and having to communicate with those platforms.

Seems like at some point we, or some other alien race would detect that eventually.

However, our xenophobes might have technology that allows to them to mask this, or strictly control their transmissions, there for making a star system appear to not have any alien life there.

But why do that?

Oh let me count the ways:

1) They are truly xenophobic. They really do not want to have anything to do with anyone else that is not just like them.

2) They did have contact with an alien species once, and it went very, very badly.

3) They have their own version of Star Trek's "Prime Directive" - No contact with an alien species that are considered too primitive.

4) And this one should scare you: they know about other species that they've detected but not had contact....however, what they learned of those other species scared them so bad that they are now doing all they can to hide.

5) They do not want anyone to hear them as they plan total galactic domination, Earth is somewhere on the list of worlds to take over.

Anyone think of other reasons?

 


So this pretty much wraps it up for Communications as far as what I have. I'm sure many of you also have thoughts and ideas on this and I'd love to hear them.

Keep in mind I still have other threads covering other things on this subject: Space Travel, Doomsday Aliens, Universal Danger, and Intelligence Evolution are just some of them.




posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 04:52 PM
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Fantastic, now I want to have doomaflojy.
Great read, thanks!
S+F



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 06:35 PM
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So if we do pick up radio signals from Andromeda today..
That would mean the aliens would be 1.5 MILLION years more advance then us now.
I would like to believe that in 1.5 Millions years after someone invented radio, could have the ability to teleport.
Perhaps they are already watching



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 06:38 PM
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I was thinking that RF would have to be pretty strong for us to tell the different from background nose.



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 06:46 PM
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originally posted by: eriktheawful
Go out past 100 light years from Earth and you will not hear anything as none of our radio signals have traveled that far yet.


Quite true.

And to get a visual sense of that "radio bubble" -- the distance our radio waves have traveled in the past 100 or so years that we have been broadcasting, see the tiny blue dot in the image below.

That 100 light year radius (200 light year diameter) is an almost non-existent bubble of space compared to the known universe. It's even tiny compered to the galaxy (and our galaxy is just a tiny speck compared to the known universe).



Source:
Image Source and Article "The Extent of Human Radio Broadcasts in the Milky Way"


edit on 23/7/2017 by Soylent Green Is People because: (no reason given)



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 07:12 PM
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a reply to: eriktheawful

Another outstanding thread, well done Sir. It's nearly impossible to add anything intelligent here that has not been said a billion times over. We can only offer opinions based on the science we have learned so far.

I've seen some truly inexplicable things but cannot jump to the e.t. conclusion.

I will say this much, if we are truly alone, that to me is both the most awesome and terrifying possibility...

I choose to believe there are many varied life forms out there, and most or all of the reasons for the Paradox come into play. Easy way out for my mind, which ponders and studies this stuff daily.



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 07:44 PM
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a reply to: eriktheawful

One issue is that no advanced civilization would bother with radio waves.

They are too low frequency and only have limited carrying bandwidth.

Every technology we have increases the amount of data we manipulate.

It's like listening to the 'phone line with a 300 Baud Modem and wondering why there aren't any BBS's out there. The technology has just moved on.

If we found a faster wider bandwidth and more secure communication tech than radio, it would go the way of Betamax video and except for accidentally generated noise, the world would go radio silent.

edit on 23/7/2017 by chr0naut because: (no reason given)



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 07:51 PM
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Another outstanding post, Eric!

One of your pictures got me to thinking, what if aliens encrypt their outgoing signals with 3 or more different frequencies? Any one frequency would not have any intelligible signal with it but only when all are combined do the signals have intelligence. I don't believe that SETI or other listening posts actively listen to more than one signal at a time (I could be wrong). I guess we may need to think outside the box when it comes to extraterrestrials.

Now I'm wondering if a Cray computer, or something like it, could be employed to analyze those type of signals. That way we may have some headway.

Back to you oh Great Gazoo!



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 08:07 PM
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a reply to: chr0naut

I remember reading in scifi books when I was a teen: laser or maser communications.

It's still using electromagnetic energy, but it's not radio frequencies, and it's a very tight beam width. Pretty much unless it's aimed at you, you're not going to see it.

Of course one issue with that is: location. If you don't know where the person or thing you want to communicate with is, you won't know where to aim your beam....where as if you use a broad beam form of communication and broadcast outward, as long as you're in the general direction it's aimed towards, you'll receive it.



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 08:10 PM
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a reply to: NightFlight

Good thought, but encryption only interferes with trying to understand the signal.

A powerfully transmitted signal can still be detected even if you do not have the ability to understand what it is, or a way to demodulated it into anything that makes sense. The carrier wave itself will present itself as a peak signal strength that rises way above the back ground noise (static). Think of the "Wow Signal", that's exactly what they saw: something that was a strong signal well above the background noise.

For it to really mean anything though, we need it to repeat itself. That indicates some sort of intelligence behind it....unless of course when you look where it came from you find a Pulsar, hehe, or some other fast spinning star that actually transmits pulses of energy.



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 08:17 PM
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originally posted by: eriktheawful
a reply to: chr0naut

I remember reading in scifi books when I was a teen: laser or maser communications.

It's still using electromagnetic energy, but it's not radio frequencies, and it's a very tight beam width. Pretty much unless it's aimed at you, you're not going to see it.

Of course one issue with that is: location. If you don't know where the person or thing you want to communicate with is, you won't know where to aim your beam....where as if you use a broad beam form of communication and broadcast outward, as long as you're in the general direction it's aimed towards, you'll receive it.



Particles generated from entangled particle factories?

The ability to mess with fundamental constants of the universe down at vastly deep decimal places?



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 09:22 PM
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a reply to: chr0naut

Sure!

Of course remember, not all the aliens out there have to have tech that is well more advanced than us. The ones that are closer to us technology wise I would suspect would be easier to find.

The exception to that is them showing up here in their fancy starship and broadcasting Hello on all hailing frequencies.



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 09:36 PM
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Pertaining to Radio communication, and why aliens might not have picked up on them,


Take into account the time frame in which we have used radio waves to communicate with eachother. Radio waves have been used since around 1920. So we have this technology almost a hundred years now.

Now take into account the age of the milky way galaxy, about 13,6 billion years. What would be the probability that at some point in the 13.6 billion years alien races had also developed and used radio waves. Pretty big chance this would have happened, BUT, what would be the chance that at least 1 alien race in our nearby star system would still use that technology right NOW?

Lets also consider that for example multiple alien races have wielded radio technology at some point, lets say 500 million years ago. Then at what level of technology could their society be at today? If we look at the rapid advancements made in our technological realm, what technology could aliens wield having a 500 million year leap ahead of us?

Indeed it would be wise to assume that at some point in time some alien races have had radio technology and have stopped using it a looooooong before humans were even on earth.

Looking at the amount of planets in the universe, the age of the universe, the chances of alien life having technology that is supreme to ours, is a 100 percent. Thats my opinion.

So where are they? They know we are here on earth. Their technology allows them opportunities that we could not even fathom at this point in time. Our imagination comes up with teleportation, travel in time back and forth among other things. Considering the circumstances, these things arent crazy, some, or many alien races must have mastered these things already and are using it at their leasure.


Also,

Pertaining to the question as to WHY they havent publicly made contact yet,

Lets assume that we ourselves have a 500 million year tecnological leap on another race. Would it be wise to just kick in the door and present yourself in overwhelming fashion? No! and developed alien races know this! With advancement in technology comes also an advancement in spirit, in acting with integrity. Introducing themselves right now would shake us to our core, it would effectively destroy civilization. People would worship them, or want to kill them. And advanced races would like neither of these things. Advanced civilizations are characterized by peace, harmony and integrity.

Aliens at this point in time surely have weapons that could make all our seas boil, they could melt this whole planet in seconds. But their greatest power lies in the fact that they would never use their technology in this way, and they would never share their technology with a race that might be capable of doing such things to one another.
edit on 23-7-2017 by cyberjedi because: added text



posted on Jul, 23 2017 @ 11:15 PM
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a reply to: cyberjedi

The time period is tricky, because back when the Milky Way formed over 13 billion years ago, those stars were (and are) Population 3 stars, meaning they contained pretty much no metal at all, no heavy elements at all, because those elements did not exist yet. That means, most likely no rocky planets.

No rocky planets, or just a few that have no metals in them, means no one is going to be building any kind of radio of any kind.

So we have to way several billion years for enough stars to form the heavier elements through fusion, which we finally get, and then the Population 2 stars form....they've got some metal....but are still very poor in metal. Not a lot in them, which means again, rocky planets that are very metal poor.

It's not until you get to the Population 1 stars (which is what our sun is), that you have a lot more metals, which means you have rocky planets that have a lot more metals.

That didn't start happening until 6 to 8 billion years ago.

Okay, so still, lots of time there.

Ah, but now you run into the other question (which I've not done a thread on yet, but will be doing it): how long did it take for the first planets to not only form where they could have life....but how often does intelligent tool using life develop?

We don't really know the answer to that question yet, as we only have one example to go by right now: Earth.

We know that it took 4.5 billion years for us, from the time the Earth formed to right up where we finally evolved humans who finally figured out how to make radios.

Does it always take that long? Can the time be shorter? Does it sometimes take longer?

And the really big question: How often does it happen?

 


One thing that I've noticed in these threads, and it's pretty interesting: many people keep assuming that if there are intelligent tool using aliens out there, they must also be older than humans and much more advanced than us all the time.

I guess it's because people look at the age of the universe and think: almost 14 billion years....that's old, so of course there should be aliens billions of years older than us.

Thing is, no, 14 billion years is not old. It's young actually. We have red dwarf stars who's fuel will last 200 to 400 billion years. Some may even last up to a trillion years. Red dwarfs are the most common stars in the universe actually.

Also again: just because life can form somewhere doesn't mean it must lead to intelligent life all the time. Look at the dinosaurs. They ruled this planet for almost 200 million years. None of them developed an intelligence that led them to become tools users that could affect their environment.

Mostly this is for another thread, but:

Humans? Well, primates showed up around 7 million years ago (remember, dino's were gone 65 million years ago, so it took 58 million years before any primates showed up)......and then finally, after even more special circumstances, about 3 million years go, a group of those primates splinters off and began to evolve in to humans....who after a very long time, began to use rocks as tools.

So how often does that happen?

That's the big question. Maybe we are the first to get this advanced.....others around us might still be catching up.

Or....maybe they did get as advanced as us, millions of years ago.....and have now not only advanced tech beyond what we can think of, but have evolved even more beyond anything we can comprehend.

It's interesting to think about it.



posted on Jul, 24 2017 @ 02:41 AM
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originally posted by: lord sword
I was thinking that RF would have to be pretty strong for us to tell the different from background nose.

Extremely strong once you get out to about 20 light years.
The only possible reception at that distance would be from high powered radar signals we've used to map the surface of other planets and the Moon.
Radio and TV? Forget about it.

Harte



posted on Jul, 24 2017 @ 02:59 AM
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originally posted by: eriktheawful
a reply to: cyberjedi

The time period is tricky, because back when the Milky Way formed over 13 billion years ago, those stars were (and are) Population 3 stars, meaning they contained pretty much no metal at all, no heavy elements at all, because those elements did not exist yet. That means, most likely no rocky planets.

No rocky planets, or just a few that have no metals in them, means no one is going to be building any kind of radio of any kind.

So we have to way several billion years for enough stars to form the heavier elements through fusion, which we finally get, and then the Population 2 stars form....they've got some metal....but are still very poor in metal. Not a lot in them, which means again, rocky planets that are very metal poor.

It's not until you get to the Population 1 stars (which is what our sun is), that you have a lot more metals, which means you have rocky planets that have a lot more metals.

That didn't start happening until 6 to 8 billion years ago.

Okay, so still, lots of time there.

Ah, but now you run into the other question (which I've not done a thread on yet, but will be doing it): how long did it take for the first planets to not only form where they could have life....but how often does intelligent tool using life develop?

We don't really know the answer to that question yet, as we only have one example to go by right now: Earth.

We know that it took 4.5 billion years for us, from the time the Earth formed to right up where we finally evolved humans who finally figured out how to make radios.

Does it always take that long? Can the time be shorter? Does it sometimes take longer?

And the really big question: How often does it happen?

 


One thing that I've noticed in these threads, and it's pretty interesting: many people keep assuming that if there are intelligent tool using aliens out there, they must also be older than humans and much more advanced than us all the time.

I guess it's because people look at the age of the universe and think: almost 14 billion years....that's old, so of course there should be aliens billions of years older than us.

Thing is, no, 14 billion years is not old. It's young actually. We have red dwarf stars who's fuel will last 200 to 400 billion years. Some may even last up to a trillion years. Red dwarfs are the most common stars in the universe actually.

Also again: just because life can form somewhere doesn't mean it must lead to intelligent life all the time. Look at the dinosaurs. They ruled this planet for almost 200 million years. None of them developed an intelligence that led them to become tools users that could affect their environment.

Mostly this is for another thread, but:

Humans? Well, primates showed up around 7 million years ago (remember, dino's were gone 65 million years ago, so it took 58 million years before any primates showed up)......and then finally, after even more special circumstances, about 3 million years go, a group of those primates splinters off and began to evolve in to humans....who after a very long time, began to use rocks as tools.

So how often does that happen?

That's the big question. Maybe we are the first to get this advanced.....others around us might still be catching up.

Or....maybe they did get as advanced as us, millions of years ago.....and have now not only advanced tech beyond what we can think of, but have evolved even more beyond anything we can comprehend.

It's interesting to think about it.



Do you support the evolution theory?

I for one dont, i think it has been dilligently debunked that we did not 'evolve' from monkeys, our genetic make up had been altered by other intelligent life, and now intelligence has been inparted unto us. So the time it took for humans to evolve to be 'intelligent' doesnt serve as a good president, to from there on make an assumption as to how long it would take for other civilizations to 'evolve' to our current level of technology. And again considering the age and span of the universe, it seems arrogant and stupid to think that we are this point the pinnacle of it all.

Are you familiar with irreducible complexity?

Also our history books appear to be flawed, i also believe that prior to our modern civilization, there have been other modern civilizations, one of which are the atlanteans that have wiped themselves out. There is still a tremendous amount of artifacts to be found in several areas, Africa, Europe, and the artic poles would also yield incredible artifacts yielding knowledge on past civilizations on earth.



posted on Jul, 24 2017 @ 08:18 AM
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Considering the 'known' vastness of the Universe and the possibility life has advanced such that they have the ability to send powerful signals into space (somewhere somebody must have developed that ability), then those signals should be everywhere, by now. Even one signal... detectable by even the most primitive radio sets (other wise why waste all the power to send it). What the hell, make it broadbandwidth too, just in case. (hi there, youre not alone, stay tuned).

Considering the sensitivity of our optics still limits us to seeing 14 billion light years away and the Universe could be boundless and infinite as well, then there surely arises the possibility of at least one 'explorer' sending signals out there for others to receive. We do that don't we, and we're one little primitive tech planet...

Further, all that space and only ... static, means that we are simply not able to detect their 'traffic'. Considering that very vastness they would have to develop faster than light travel or its a waste of time to try and travel that far between galaxies and then to visit all those planets to try and find life.

Makes more sense to sow that life as they go... Johnny apple seed style. Makes even further sense to make a supply line like earth people do when they explore territory or climb mountains, establishing 'bases' and all.

Guess why the space program wants to see every planet and moon close up? Guess why we listen to every known spectrum for 'signals'?

In the interest of sowing life as they go from 'habitable' planet to planet, they would of course need to invent cell division, DNA and store their seeds, eggs and embryos in as small a space as possible for the journey. Considering that life may have been designed for this very purpose by advanced intelligences and behave the same way we do exploring and seeding planets as they go, and that somewhere out there in all that space at least one advanced intelligence has had ample time to develop that far and reach most everywhere, by now....

... and will return some day to 'harvest' its garden. Probably just before (or after) we use up all our resources and or destroy every living thing.

Ever hear of "two fruit flies in a jar" experiment?



posted on Jul, 24 2017 @ 08:30 AM
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Great topic! S+F

Being more on the speculative side and looking at several cases where people do speak of contact with beings (most of the time accompanied by high strangeness), I like the idea of a 'thought construct' where a possible common ground is created to make communication possible.

Not on the quantitative side of research though.

Just a thought



posted on Jul, 24 2017 @ 08:48 AM
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If even the most conservative estimates
about intelligent life in the universe are close
we are most certainly not alone.



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