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The Indian Airborne Surveillance Platform (ASP) is one of the key force multipliers in the modern war scenario. India's Defense Research and Development Organization [DRDO] is developing an advanced surveillance platform based on an HS-748 aircraft to detect targets at extended ranges with all round azimuth coverage. It is designed to handle 50 targets. It features a hybrid navigation system and the secure communication and data links. The DRDO has spent a little over Rs 200 crore to develop this early warning system, similar to the American E-2C Hawkeye. But, o get the capabilities of even the E-2C, India would have to spend at least Rs 2,000 crore. Three HS-748 Avros have been fitted with rotodomes.
The development of the ASP would permitted fuller utilisation of the high performance MiG-29, Mirage-2000 and SU-30 planes in the IAF. The utility of ASP also lies in its ability to act as an airborne command and control center, overcoming the limitation of directing air operations from the ground.
Studies and analyses began in July 1985 under project'Guardian', later renamed 'Airawat'. By the late 1980s an Avro had been modified with a 24 ft x 5 ft composite rotodome. The aircraft flew with a pylon (without the dome) in May 1989 and with the rotodome in November 1990. The Centre for Airborne Systems (CABS) was set up in February 1991, under Dr K. Ramchand to act as a system house and integration agency using all the expertise and infrastructure available in India. The project received public recognition when the aircraft was flown during the flight demonstrations at the inauguration ceremony of the first Aero India show held in Bangalore in December 1996. The Defence Research & Development Organisation, Ministry of Defence, provided the airborne surveillance platform to the Navy in August 1998. The program achieved success in most aspects, including airborne radar analysis, clutter (ground reflections) characterisation and measurement and developing a hybrid navigation system. The main challenge left was evolving the radar and support mission system avionics into a flying surveillance platform.
The antenna used in the rotodome of ASP is a low side lobe slotted wave guide planar array. The antenna features very low side lobe levels and a narrow beam width in azimuth. It handles high power (better than 3.3 KW average) and weighs 160 kg. For housing the primary and the secondary (IFF) antennas, an ellipsoidal structure (7.315 m x 1.524 m) rotodome has been indigenously fabricated. It largely comprises composites and aluminium alloy parts. The indigenous rotodome has since been successfully fabricated and flight tested on the ASP system. The rotodome is driven by a hydraulic servo system using aircraft hydraulic power.
The airborne radar data processor (ARDP), supporting track-while-scan, is required to form target tracks after receiving data from the various sensors of ASP, such as the primary radar (PR) and the secondary surveillance radar (SSR), which operate in TWS mode. The ARDP correlates the target plots from scan to scan to maintain the target tracks. It also performs the correlation of target information obtained from SSR and endorsement with the PR track information.
The ASP is guided by a high accuracy navigation system, which consists of an inertial navigation system (INS) and a Doppler navigation system. The velocity drifts of INS are contained by Doppler velocities using a Kalman filter, resulting in good navigation accuracy required for long duration flight of ASP. Work is in hand to integrate GPS receiver with INS to enhance performance, reliability and robustness.