This is the seventh thread in the series on the ABC Preon Model. Links to earlier threads will appear in the comment below.
At this point it is important to consider the role of the neutrino in the ABC preon model.
There is only one neutrino in the ABC Preon Model.
There is no labeling of neutrinos as being an electron neutrino, a muon neutrino or a tauon
neutrino. Nor are anti-neutrinos tagged as being different from regular neutrinos in the ABC Preon Model. Like photons, it is assumed that neutrinos
can be pair produced in vacuum. But just as the photons that are produced from pair-production are regular photons, so the neutrinos that are produced
from pair-production are just regular neutrinos. The neutrino, like the photon, is its own anti-particle as understood from the ABC Preon Model.
The original rationale for neutrinos not coming in different flavors and types was just a straight-forward analogy with photons since the ABC Preon
Model proposes that the neutrino, like the photon, is a force carrier. But another reason for proposing that all neutrinos are the same comes from the
modeling of mesons within the ABC Preon Model. Below we repeat the drawing from a previous thread:
In the above picture recall that a notation is employed wherein a line joining preons represents a binding neutrino. From the picture it is easy to
see how an anti-neutrino could bind the anti-A to the anti-C, and how an anti-neutrino could bind the anti-B to the anti-C, as then anti-quarks would
involve anti-neutrinos along with anti-preon constituents. But what about the binding between the C and the anti-C? It is there that the sameness of
anti-neutrinos and neutrinos becomes apparent.
A Prediction Realized.
The original publication (about 20 years ago) predicted that neutrino oscillations should exist at some level. This
prediction was based on a pure simplicity argument founded upon an analogy with photons as mentioned above. It was admitted that it might indeed prove
necessary to include a labeling and separation of the various types of neutrino if experimental data demanded it, but that would leave the ABC preon
model no better nor worse than the standard model as far as neutrinos are concerned. The argument as to why neutrino oscillations had not been seen at
the time of publication was that it may be that the cross section for interaction is just so small that oscillations hadn't been observed yet.
Years after the prediction for neutrino oscillations was made, neutrino oscillations were indeed found. Rather recent experimentation has determined
that the oscillations are consistent with a theory of neutrinos involving a small neutrino mass. And so the central prediction of the original ABC
Preon Model - that all neutrinos should be the same - has been proven by observations. What starts out as one "flavor" of neutrino will eventually
evolve to the other flavor types. This of course indicates that all neutrinos are indeed the same, and that their flavor is just a matter of some
flavor-phase that they are in at the time and place of observation.
Neutrino interaction cross sections are known to be very small.
Yet in the ABC Preon Model neutrinos are responsible for what will be shown in
upcoming posts to be very large binding energies. Help on understanding how this can be so is found by considering what happens with the scattering of
photons off of matter.
First, consider what happens as photon energies get large. Photons in the visible spectrum already travel through glass with very small attenuation.
But when one gets to x-rays and gamma-rays the photons travel through even strongly absorbing materials more and more easily as their energy
increases. (For a reference, click here.
) Hence, we see that the cross section for
interaction decreases to smaller and smaller values as the photon energy is increased into the MeV and then to the GeV range.
Secondly, consider what happens when photons of small energy interact with atoms. For photons in the infrared, the energy of the photon is not enough
to excite the atomicly bound electrons into a new quantum state. Hence, low energy photons are incapable of changing the electron's energy level
within the atom.
With the above two facts to guide us, as well as with an assumption that preonic bindings will involve energies of a GeV or more, it should not be
surprising that the cross sections are small for observed neutrino/matter events. The GeV binding energies mean that there is a very strong bond
between the two preons, so having a neutrino affect that bond will require a neutrino energy high enough to change the internal energy state. And
having such a high energy neutrino will lead to a very small cross section for those events to occur.
As for low energy neutrino scatterings, that may indeed occur. But how could we measure it? In order to detect the neutrino in the first place we
generally must have the neutrinos interact with matter to produce something that we can then subsequently detect. And in order to get that which we
can detect, the neutrinos must change the internal energy state of the bound preons in order to form something new. Which, as described in the
paragraph above, will require a very high energy neutrino. Hence, low energy neutrino scattering will likely be impossible to see.
So low energy neutrino scattering will likely be impossible to see, and high energy neutrino interactions will have an extremely low cross section.
Therefore we won't experimentally detect much interaction between neutrinos and matter at all, even though neutrinos are proposed to be responsible
for what is an extremely strong force that binds the preons together.
Neutrinos have a half-integer spin
and so they will also have a helicity. And this leads to the conclusion that there will be at least two
helicity states of the neutrinos. One could identify these states separately. But we typically don't do that for photons or electrons or any other
particle with spin, so I see no need to do that for the neutrinos of the ABC Preon Model either. And of course, neutrinos may have different energies
as well, but that is usually not grounds for considering something to be a different entity. So for the purposes of the ABC Preon Model we will
continue to use a simple single label for all neutrinos discussed and consider them to be identical particles, although they may of course have
different momenta, energy, spin and flavor phase at any given place and time.