A simple new proposal for lepton substructure was presented in my previous thread, The ABC
Preon Model. Modeling the Massive Leptons
, which showed the following picture:
So it is now time to take a look at the hadrons. In all of the high energy physics experiments done over the last 70 years, it has been observed that
almost all elementary particles that have been found can be classified as either a lepton or a hadron, and it has been observed that the hadrons come
in two types. There are baryons, which are proposed to be made of three quarks, and there are mesons, which are proposed to be made of a quark and an
In the picture above, the delta family is shown as a representative baryon family. As can be seen, there are four possible ways to make a delta
particle out of up and down quarks, and it is observed in nature that only these four particles are found. Shown below the delta family is the
pi-meson (pion) family, which is a representative meson family. As can be seen, there are four ways to make pions out of up and down quark-antiquark
pairs, and three pions have been found in nature. There is some evidence that the neutral pion is actually a superposition of two different types of
quark substructure, as is show in the picture.
Note that the over-arching rule for making hadronic matter is that the total color of all particles must be white, and that one can obtain white
particles in one of two ways. One can combine three primary colors, as in the case of the deltas, or one can combine a color with its anti-color, as
in the case of the pions. Here we see why baryons are formed of three quarks, since that is how the three color combination can be achieved. And we
can see why mesons must consist of quark-antiquark pairs, since that is how a color/anti-color combination can be obtained. In addition to the delta
and pion families shown here, there are many, many more similar families of particles found in nature. The quark model allows for a replacement of a
down quark by a heavier strange quark, or by an even heavier bottom quark, and it also allows for the up quark to be replaced by a heavier charm quark
or an even heavier top quark. It is easy to see that making all permutations of such replacements would lead to an enormous number of particles. Of
all particles found to date, there are none that fit outside of the quark, lepton and force carrier model, and hence there is quite good agreement
between experiment and the present quark and lepton theory.
So it is clear how all known hadrons can be made from a model using quarks and antiquarks. However, there is another way that these particles can be
made, as seen in the picture below:
Above we see that if we propose a new preon, called C, and let it be bound to three A or B preons (where the A and B preons have been proposed in
earlier threads of this series) that we again can have only four possible ways to make a delta particle. By assigning the electric charge of the C
preon as plus two, the delta particle will have possible charge states of plus two, plus one, zero, and minus one just as is found in nature. We can
also see that the mesons can be made if we allow a C preon to bind with its anti-preon, and further allow the C preon to bind to one additional A or
B, and lastly allow the C anti-preon to bind to an anti-A or anti-B.
While at first it may seem that the arrangements shown in the picture above are arbitrary groupings, it can be shown that the groupings easily follow
if we assign a neutrinic charge of plus three to the C preon. (Indeed, such neutrinic charges are shown in the diagram.) As in the case where the
leptons were analogous to Hydrogen atoms, we can now see that the Baryons are analogous to Lithium atoms. In the Lithium atom a nucleus with an
electric charge of plus three is orbited by three electrically negative particles. In baryons, a C preon with neutrinic charge of plus three is
orbited by three neutrinically negative particles.
In the picture above I also show the binding neutrino for each binding. In this instance, I show a particle with electric charge of plus one, since
the C particle has an electric charge of plus two, the B particle has an electric charge of minus one, and the A particles have zero electric charge.
Of course, as shown in the previous picture, we could have three B's, three A's, or two B's and an A orbiting around the C preon, and in those
cases the electric charges are different from what is shown above. But the important point is that assigning a neutrinic charge of plus three to the C
preon leads to a situation where all of the known Delta particles can be formed, and no additional Delta particles are allowed. Hence, this new model
is every bit as good as the quark model in predicting all of the known Delta particles. The same perfect match to nature is found with the Pi
Of course, there is a close relationship between the ABC Preons and quarks. The relationship of the ABC Preon Model to quarks will be discussed in my