In the previous thread, we introduced the preonic modeling for the massive leptons, repeated here in the picture below:
At this point in our development, we can now move on to assign some quantum numbers to our preons. A first point of analysis is to note that to date,
no experiment has shown the existence of free electric charge in fractional amounts. For that reason, we will begin by arbitrarily assigning our new A
preon to have zero electric charge and our new B preon to have a charge of minus one. Since the neutrino has zero electric charge, this will leave our
leptons as having a charge of minus one, as they must. Note that the antimatter leptons will have a charge of plus one, but we will deal with that
topic later. Next, it is known that the neutrino has a half integer spin. In this model I am assuming that one quanta of the binding particle is
contained within the composite particle, and hence, the A and B particles can either be both fermions or both bosons. Recall that Fermions are
particles with half integer spin, while bosons are particles with integer spin.
By adding two fermions one will get an integer value, and then adding the half integer of the neutrino results in an overall half integer spin.
Similarly, adding the spin of two bosons results in an integer spin, and then adding the half integer of the neutrino results in an overall half
integer spin. Recall that in all of these additions, spin is a vector quantity. So if we add a half integer spin of the A to a half integer of the B
we will get either one or zero. When we then add the half integer of the neutrino we will either get one half or one and a half. We will get one and a
half if all three spins are aligned. Since leptons have a spin of one half, this means that all three such spins cannot be aligned. A similar analysis
can be done if the spin of the A and the B are bosons with integer values of spin, and that case will have similar constraints on the needed
alignments.
Here we will also propose a new charge law for the preons. Since the force carrier has been proposed to be the neutrino, we will call this new charge
the neutrinic charge. Following our analogy with the hydrogen atom, where an electrically negative particle orbits a positive nucleus, here we will
have a particle with a negative neutrinic charge orbiting a particle that has a positive neutrinic charge. We can arbitrarily assign a negative
neutrinic charge to the B particle we proposed earlier, and a positive neutrinic charge to the A particle we proposed earlier. Since the neutrinic
charge is arbitrary, we are free to attach the electric charge to either of the particles, and we have already chosen to assign the B particle a
negative electric charge, while leaving the A particle with zero electric charge. Here we see a picture of the massive leptons with their quantum
numbers assigned:
The nomenclature introduced above is to have a trailing superscript indicating the electric charge on the preon and a preceding subscript indicating
the neutrinic charge on the preon. With the total electric charge being equal to minus one, we see that our preon model for leptons gives the correct
electric charge. With each substituent having the opposite neutrinic charge, we see that our constructs have overall zero neutrinic charge. The result
that stable particles have zero total neutrinic charge is the analogy of the fact that atoms also have zero total electrical charge. Lastly, by having
the A and B particles be either both fermions or both bosons, the total spin of the leptons can be arranged to be half integer, since the bound
neutrino is itself a half integer spin particle. Hence, all quantum numbers of the leptons are obtained in a model that readily allows for three
generations of leptons. (At this point in the development, it is not known whether the spins of the preons are bosons or fermions, only that they are
both fermions or both bosons, and the spins are constrained so that the total spin of the massive leptons is one half.)
Also introduced in the picture above are the anti-matter counterparts to the massive leptons, as well as anti-preons. A line (also called a bar) above
the letter identifying the preon indicates it is an anti-preon. It will turn out in future analysis that the massive leptons are actually made up of a
B and an anti-A, rather than a B and an A, so that improvement to the model is introduced above as well.
With massive leptons now modeled and their quantum numbers defined, we'll see how hadrons get modeled in the next post.