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originally posted by: joemoe
Philosophically it's a good discussion, however, what we call A.I. today are really not A.I. at all. What we have today and for the foreseeable future are really expert systems that give an illusion of A.I. Maybe with the advent of more powerful quantum computers real A.I. might be possible, but for now real A.I. seems just out of our reach.
That’s the year in which artificial intelligence will be able to perform any intellectual task a human can perform, according to one survey of experts at a recent AI conference. Anything and everything any person has ever done in all of history — all of it doable, by 2050, by intelligent machines.
But what can AI do today? How close are we to that all-powerful machine intelligence? I wanted to know, but couldn’t find a list of AI’s achievements to date. So I decided to write one.
What follows is an attempt at that list. It’s not comprehensive, but it contains links to some of the most impressive feats of machine intelligence around.
Why Your Brain Is A Quantum Computer
By Ervin Laszlo
Scientists have believed that the brain operates as a biochemical and bioelectric system. Individual brain cells, so-called neurons, fire in complex coordinated patterns, and their chemical and electrical discharges make up a network that processes information. Somehow, this information (or some part of it) gets translated into conscious “mind-events”: shapes and colors, sounds, and the other “data” of your senses.
However, there is mounting evidence that your brain doesn’t operate merely by biochemical and bioelectric information processing. What your brain does is far more complex, fast, and sophisticated than could be accomplished by this standard kind of information-processing.
Thousands of chemical reactions take place every second in every cell of your body, and your brain and nervous system ensure that they are sufficiently coherent and coordinated so that your body can maintain itself in the complex and physically highly improbable state we call living.
It is commonly taught that this state of a single particle being in two places at the same time 'collapses' when observed, but I think this is a cognitive device, rather than a fair description of a transformation between quantum state and classical macroscopic physics. It seems likely to me that the whole universe exists in a quantum state which never collapses. All that happens when you observe something is you find out which position you observed it in, which means that any alternate states where it isn't there now have a zero probability, from your perspective. From an alternate quantum state you will have seen it in the alternative position, and both observations happened, are equally valid, and will lead onto many subsequent quantum states which are equally valid.
For 70 years, scientists have known that honeybees tell the other bees in their hive where the good nectar is by doing an elaborate bee dance. The dance of the honeybee is one of the most intricate communications in nature. But how can a tiny animal with only a few million neurons possibly possess all the information needed to carry it out? The answer: it may be a quantum dance.
Read the original source: www.unknowncountry.com...
"It takes about 150 attoseconds for an electron to circle the nucleus of an atom."
An attosecond is 1×10 of a second (one quintillionth of a second). For context, an attosecond is to a second what a second is to about 31.71 billion years. The word "attosecond" is formed by the prefix atto and the unit second. Atto-was made from the Danish word for eighteen (atten)..
67 attoseconds: the shortest pulses of laser light yet created
Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black hole with the estimated mass of the entire Universe, observable or not, assuming Linde's chaotic inflationary model with an inflation whose mass is 10−6 Planck masses.
The characteristic linear dimension is given as a certain combination of the three most fundamental constants of nature: (1) Planck's constant h (named after the German physicist Max Planck, the founder of quantum physics), (2) the speed of light c, and (3) the universal gravitational constant G. The combination, called the Planck length (Gh/c3)1/2, equals roughly 10-33 cm, far smaller than the distances to which elementary particles can be probed in particle accelerators on the Earth.
The energies needed to smash particles to within a Planck length of each other were available to the universe at a time equal to the Planck length divided by the speed of light. This time, called the Planck time (Gh/c5)1/2, equals approximately 10-43 second. At the Planck time, the mass density of the universe is thought to approach the Planck density, c5/hG2, roughly 1093 g/cc . Contained within a Planck volume is a Planck mass (hc/G)1/2, roughly 10-5 g. An object of such mass would be a quantum black hole, with an event horizon close to both its own Compton length (distance over which a particle is quantum mechanically "fuzzy") and the size of the cosmic horizon at the Planck time. Under such extreme conditions, space-time cannot be treated as a classical continuum and must be given a quantum interpretation.
The latter is the goal of the supergravity theory, which has as one of its features the curious notion that the four space-time dimensions (three space dimensions plus one time dimension) of the familiar world may be an illusion. Real space-time, in accordance with this picture, has 26 or 10 space-time dimensions, but all of these dimensions except the usual four are somehow compacted or curled up to a size comparable to the Planck scale. Thus has the existence of these other dimensions escaped detection. It is presumably only during the Planck era, when the usual four space-time dimensions acquire their natural Planck scales, that the existence of what is more fundamental than the usual ideas of mass-energy and space-time becomes fully revealed.
Unfortunately, attempts to deduce anything more quantitative or physically illuminating from the theory have bogged down in the intractable mathematics of this difficult subject. At the present time superstring theory remains more of an enigma than a solution.
Excerpt from the Encyclopedia Britannica without permission.
Radio Digest reprinted the script of "The War of the Worlds" – "as a commentary on the nervous state of our nation after the Pact of Munich" – prefaced by an editorial cartoon by Les Callan of The Toronto Star (February 1939)
Later studies indicate that many missed the repeated notices about the broadcast being fictional, partly because The Mercury Theatre on the Air, an unsponsored CBS cultural program with a relatively small audience, ran at the same time as the NBC Red Network's popular Chase and Sanborn Hour featuring ventriloquist Edgar Bergen. At the time, many Americans assumed that a significant number of Chase and Sanborn listeners changed stations when the first comic sketch ended and a musical number by Nelson Eddy began, thereby tuning in "The War of the Worlds" after the opening announcements, but historian A. Brad Schwartz, after studying hundreds of letters from people who heard "The War of the Worlds", as well as contemporary audience surveys, concluded that very few people frightened by Welles's broadcast had tuned out Bergen's program. "All the hard evidence suggests that The Chase & Sanborn Hour was only a minor contributing factor to the Martian hysteria," he wrote. "...in truth, there was no mass exodus from Charlie McCarthy to Orson Welles that night.":67–69 Because the broadcast was unsponsored, Welles and company could schedule breaks at will rather than arranging them around advertisements. As a result, the only notices that the broadcast was fictional came at the start of the broadcast and about 40 and 55 minutes into it.
A study by the Radio Project discovered that fewer than one-third of frightened listeners understood the invaders to be aliens; most thought they were listening to reports of a German invasion or a natural catastrophe.:180, 191 "People were on edge", wrote Welles biographer Frank Brady. "For the entire month prior to 'The War of the Worlds', radio had kept the American public alert to the ominous happenings throughout the world. The Munich crisis was at its height. … For the first time in history, the public could tune into their radios every night and hear, boot by boot, accusation by accusation, threat by threat, the rumblings that seemed inevitably leading to a world war.":164–165
CBS News chief Paul White wrote that he was convinced that the panic induced by the broadcast was a result of the public suspense generated before the Munich Pact. "Radio listeners had had their emotions played upon for days … Thus they believed the Welles production even though it was specifically stated that the whole thing was fiction".:47
Catharsis is the purification and purgation of emotions—especially pity and fear—through art or any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal and restoration. It is a metaphor originally used by Aristotle in the Poetics, comparing the effects of tragedy on the mind of spectator to the effect of a cathartic on the body.
originally posted by: one4all
When you overcomplicate things you fail to progress.
A.I CANNOT EVER FAIRLY BEAT A HUMAN AT CHESS or anything else....Big Blue was re-programmed to cheat....and every A.I since has been taught this same thing.....if it hadnt been we could not communicate with it at all....to beat a human A.I must create a proxy for emotions and eveything connected to emotional actions and reactions...and none of this is logical or numerical...sooooooo....programmers teach their computers to CHEAT by intentionally screwing with data patterns.....building UNNATURAL patterns within the script......then connecting these patterns or hotwiring them so the computer can simulate emotional decision making and anticipatory tactical perspective.
This is why A.I will never rule Humanity...we create...A.I emulates.
In a major breakthrough for artificial intelligence, a computing system developed by Google researchers in Great Britain has beaten a top human player at the game of Go, the ancient Eastern contest of strategy and intuition that has bedeviled AI experts for decades.
Machines have topped the best humans at most games held up as measures of human intellect, including chess, Scrabble, Othello, even Jeopardy!. But with Go—a 2,500-year-old game that’s exponentially more complex than chess—human grandmasters have maintained an edge over even the most agile computing systems. Earlier this month, top AI experts outside of Google questioned whether a breakthrough could occur anytime soon, and as recently as last year, many believed another decade would pass before a machine could beat the top humans.
But Google has done just that. “It happened faster than I thought,” says Rémi Coulom, the French researcher behind what was previously the world’s top artificially intelligent Go player.