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As shown in Fig. 2e, there is a great vertical gradient of the radial velocity of the airflow near the ground surface, which could cause the turbulent eddies to transfer the turbulent kinetic energy to the solid particles on the ground. Therefore, in the atmospheric flow of the modeled dust devil, there is a strong wind shear on the ground surface, causing dust particles to saltate and move along the ground surface.
The movement of solid particles depends on the interactions between the aloft dust particles and the airflow field of dust devils, in which the drag and the centrifugal force component on the horizontal plane are the key force components