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originally posted by: InachMarbank
originally posted by: muSSang
a reply to: InachMarbank
How can you detect oxygen (or other atmospheric elements) trillions of miles away?
The can do this almost the same way they detect how a planet is there, when the planet passes the sun the light spectrum changes depending on the planets atmosphere. Its amazing how far we have come in 20 years.
Now, different elements absorb light, rather than allowing it to pass through, but they only absorb certain parts of the light spectrum. This generates a “light signature”.
And its remarkably simple.
If we were to look at a light spectrum coming from Earth, for example, the “barcode” would be missing the frequencies that correlate to nitrogen, oxygen and argon would be missing, as those compose Earth’s atmosphere (78%, 21% and 1%, respectively).
This link helps with blue red shift and explains how they can tell the chemical composition
Thanks for that explanation.
Do you know the magnification power of the TRAPPIST telescopes?
originally posted by: Tempter
Zero evidence of life outside Earth. None.
That is all.
originally posted by: wildespace
I wonder if the VLT (Very Large Telescope) could be used to find and study exoplanets. After all, its mirrors are 8 meter in diameter each, about 4 times as large as the Hubble's. And trust me, when it comes to astronomy, the mirror size (and, thus, the resolving power) is more important than the magnification power.
originally posted by: kiliker30
a reply to: muSSang
THIS, my friends, IS progress.
Reminds me of men in black when Kay is talking to jay on the bench.
Kay: "A person is smart. People are dumb, panicky dangerous animals and you know it. Fifteen hundred years ago everybody knew the Earth was the center of the universe. Five hundred years ago, everybody knew the Earth was flat, and fifteen minutes ago, you knew that humans were alone on this planet. Imagine what you'll know tomorrow."
People said we would never find planets that we were it.
We showed them huh.
originally posted by: BenSisko
I'm not an expert at this by any means, so a question is floating around in my mind for quite some time now. Isn't it possible with one of those telescopes to look for light sources on other planets, especially the earth-like ones? I remember the "universe" picture taken by the Hubble telescope, which shows a tiny speck of the observable universe with hundreds of Galaxys being visible, but no detailed pictures of planets' surfaces in our relative neighborhood.
I guess it's just a question to make the picture sharper, maybe some configurations to one of the telescopes would make it possible.
As bright as the light of big cities might seem, currently Earth's night side is roughly 600,000 times dimmer than its day side. Existing telescopes could only see the night side of a world like Earth out to a distance of a little more than 1,000 astronomical units — that is, the edge of the solar system. "The closest star is 100 times farther than that," Loeb said. To see nighttime city lights as bright as Earth's on a world in the habitable zone of the closest star, you would need a telescope with optics at least 100 times wider in diameter than the Hubble Space Telescope's, he added.
Daniel Tamayo noticed something else. The clockwork of the TRAPPIST-1 system is the most complex case yet of what astrophysicists call a resonant chain, where the “years” of each orbiting body relate to one another as simple ratios. For every eight times the innermost world races through its day-and-a-half-long orbit, the next planet goes around roughly five times, the next one after that orbits three times, and the next one two times. And so on.
While Tamayo was working on his simulations, he was approached by Matt Russo, a fellow postdoc and jazz guitarist who thought the TRAPPIST-1 resonances looked familiar from music theory.
The seventh planet, h, orbits about once every three weeks. Sped up some 200 million times and expressed in sound waves, that frequency is a C note. From there, the known ratios between planets determine every other planet’s signature note. Together the notes form a major ninth chord [!!!]. “It’s really remarkable that it worked out like that,” Russo said. “Even with a different pattern of resonances, you wouldn’t get a chord that sounds as good.”
They confirmed that the planet, TRAPPIST-1h, orbits its star every 18.77 days, is linked in its orbital path to its siblings and is frigidly cold. Far from its host star, the planet is likely uninhabit-able—but it may not always have been so.
"Resonances can be tricky to understand, especially between three bodies. But there are simpler cases that are easier to explain," Luger said. For instance, closer to home, Jupiter's moons Io, Europa and Ganymede are set in a 1:2:4 resonance, meaning that Europa's orbital period is exactly twice that of Io, and Ganymede's is exactly twice that of Europa.
These relationships, Luger said, suggested that by studying the orbital velocities of its neighbor planets they could predict the exact orbital velocity, and hence also orbital period, of TRAPPIST-1h even before the K2 observations. Their theory proved correct when they located the planet in the K2 data.
TRAPPIST-1's seven-planet chain of resonances established a record among known planetary systems, the previous holders being the systems Kepler-80 and Kepler-223, each with four resonant planets. The resonances are "self-correcting," Luger said, such that if one planet were to somehow be nudged off course, it would lock right back into resonance. "Once you're caught into this kind of stable resonance, it's hard to escape," he said.