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originally posted by: Kantzveldt
a reply to: Byrd
There are lots of assumptions involved there, why on Earth would anyone want to be in contact with a bunch of farmers in Sudan even if they did have chiefs and elders in their stratified society, like everybody else in the world, and were's this evidence for Levantine contact...?
What was really surprising was the age of the tombs. The cemetery clearly dated from the time of the so-called A-Group - a prehistoric people believed to have dominated lower Nubia from about 3800 to 3100 B.C. Of all the numerous items discovered, the most significant were found in an A-Group grave site, called Cemetery L, which yielded artifacts that were created six to seven generations (approximately 200 years) before the start of the First Dynasty in Egypt, 3150 B.C. All told, more than 1,000 complete and fragmentary painted pots, and over 100 stone vessels.
The range of these and other fragments from the plundered cemetery began to indicate a wealth and complexity that could only be called royal. In addition to huge quantities of native pottery, the tombs were filled with bottles, flasks, bowls, and large storage jars from Egypt - many inscribed with hieroglyphs. There were also vessels from Syria-Palestine of a type that had never been found in Egypt and that may have indicated a direct trade link between Nubia and Asia. These findings included five major groups: 1 - items probably from Sudan 2 - items very similar to a culture previously know as C-Group, which was found in Nubia and in Egypt up to the New Kingdom (2300 - 1500 B.C.) 3 - Egyptian pottery, some of which had early forms of hieroglyphic writing 4 - items from the Levant (Syria and Palestine area) 5 - badly damaged objects of Egyptian and Sudanese origin
A great bowl from cemetery L tomb 19 was damaged and with pieces missing. It's composition included animals is interspersed with four balanced vignettes,each with two giraffes flanking a palm tree, superimposed on the palms where the crowns would have been are fallen men, the one to the right attack by a vulture and label with a sigh for upper Egypt.
...the mode of construction is unique among surviving ancient Egyptian boats. About 75 feet in length and seven to ten feet in width at the widest point, these boats are only about two feet deep, with narrowing prows and sterns. The portion of the boat hull excavated revealed thick wooden planks, lashed together by rope fed through mortises.
Those pots from the Levantine probably arrived through increased trade with Lower Egypt through the land connection, they're of the Naqada II period and that's what was starting to happen, you won't find any evidence of trading in gold or even gold artifacts before that period.
. There were also vessels from Syria-Palestine of a type that had never been found in Egypt and that may have indicated a direct trade link between Nubia and Asia.
Excavations at an A-Group cemetery in Qustul yielded an old incense burner, which was adorned with Ancient Egyptian royal iconography.
However, further research established the antecedence of the predynastic Egyptian regalia: The earliest known examples of Egyptian royal iconography, such as, e.g., the representation of the Red Crown on a late Naqada I (c. 3500 BCE) pottery vessel from Abydos or the triumphal scenes in the painting from Hierakonpolis Tomb 100 (c. 3400-3300 BCE) are much older than the Qustul censer. It seems thus that it was the Qustul rulers who adopted symbols of royal authority developed in Egypt and not vice versa