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originally posted by: Phage
originally posted by: TerryDon79
originally posted by: Phage
a reply to: TerryDon79
Everyone in 1300 knew that uranium is slightly radioactive and that it is the best way to murder someone.
I don't know if your being serious or being sarcastic.
It doesn't help that I don't know that much about uranium to be able to know either way.
There are better ways to poison someone. The art was well established by then.
originally posted by: andy06shake
a reply to: Kashai
Maybe in Fallout 4?
Not saying it's strickly impossible considering there has been some speculation as to us breeding genetically modified luminescent animals.
Don't see it being a possibility back in the 13th/14th century all the same.
The tests used were FTIR, Raman and multiparametric mechanical. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy chemical tests are based on the relationship that exist in between age and a spectral property of ancient flax textiles. Another test was practised measuring many micro-mechanical characteristics of flax fibers, like tensile strength. Now the data obtained was matched with similar tests on pieces of cloth from between 3250 BC and 2000 AD whose dates are accurately known. Molecular Chemical bonds were identifed using FTIR which output was an infrared absorption spectrum, that becomes like a sample profile, uniquely identifying it at molecular level giving information about its composition. In Raman Spectroscopy the light scattered off of a sample is utilized as opposed to the light absorbed by a sample. This is a highly sensitive technique to identify very particular chemicals. Taking about the results, the dates obtained ( with a 95% of precision) were as follows: FTIR = 300 BC + 400 years; Raman spectroscopy = 200 BC + 500 years; and multi-parametric mechanical = 400 AD + 400 years. This means that we have an average dating of 33 BC + 250 years (What is interesting is that by combining these results we get a collective uncertainty below the respective individual test uncertainties). These results locate the age of the shroud of Turin in the actual time of the execution of Jesus of Nazareth that traditionally is fixed in between 29th and 33th AD.
4.3. Dating of unknown age samples If a new sample has to be dated using the results of the present paper, the procedure described hereinafter must be followed. A) The sample must pass the cleaning tests of Section 3.3. B) The resulting FT-IR/ATR spectra (advised three for repeatability) must be averaged and the corresponding ratios of Eqs. (1)–(3) must be used in Eq. (14) to obtain the date D4. C) The resulting Raman spectra (advised three for repeatability) must be averaged and the corresponding ratio of Eq. (4) must be evaluated with the fluorescence F given from Eq. (5). Depending on the fluorescence F, either Eq. (18) or Eq. (19) could be used to obtain the date DCOC/OH. For values of F in the range between 0.786 and 1.825, the DCOC/OH can be evaluated from the plot of Fig. 9. D) Dates coming from both FT-IR and Raman spectra can be combined together to obtain the most probable spectroscopic date D of the sample. The simpler combination is the arithmetic mean: D = D4 + DCOC/OH 2 (22) with an uncertainty  of about ±220 years if F = 0.786, but the latter can decrease to less than ±180 years if the date is calculated on the basis of the arithmetic mean weighted over the square uncertains.
The resulting calibration curves give the possibility to make a rough dating of ancient flax textiles, but future calibration based on a greater number of samples, coupled with ad hoc cleaning procedures, will significantly improve the accuracy of the method. This procedure should be capable to remove the pollutants, but not to damage the chemical characteristics of the flax fiber. Therefore, this non destructive method could be an alternative to others, such as the more accurate radiocarbon dating, that is in the narrower range of ±50 years or less, but that both requires destruction of textiles and has higher costs
Conclusive remarks: On the basis of a proposal of previous papers [1,9], this work investigates the possibility to define a two-way relationship between age and a spectral property of ancient flax textiles. This task has been carried out by testing samples dated from about 3250 B.C. to 2000A.D., that have been reduced to about a dozen after a preliminary selection. In fact, it is necessary to eliminate polluted or degraded samples from the analysis because environmental factors can influence the spectral results. An example is a long conservation time in humid environments (e.g. Akeldama shroud of Jerusalem) that alters the chemical structure of the fibers.
originally posted by: The angel of light
a reply to: Phantom423
Everybody that has serious papers and references to bring in order to contribute in a civilized discussion of the results of The team of Dr G.Fanti at Padua University is welcome to show them.
I see a lot of personal attacks that are unacceptable in the forum right now, I encourage the members to return to full respect of norms of decorum in the posting.
The Angel of Lightness
Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin
by P. E. Damon,1 D. J. Donahue,2 B. H. Gore,1 A. L. Hatheway,2 A. J. T. Jull,1 T. W. Linick,2 P. J. Sercel,2 L. J. Toolin,1 C.R. Bronk,3 E. T. Hall,3R. E. M. Hedges, 3 R. Housley,3 I. A. Law,3 C. Perry,3 G. Bonani,4 S. Trumbore,5 W. Woelfli,4 J. C. Ambers,6 S. G. E. Bowman,6 M. N. Leese6 & M. S. Tite6
Reprinted from Nature, Vol. 337, No. 6208, pp. 611-615, 16th February, 1989 Copyright 1989 Macmillan Magazines Ltd. - All Rights Reserved
Reprinted by permission.
The results of radiocarbon measurements at Arizona, Oxford and Zurich yield a calibrated calendar age range with at least 95% confidence for the linen of the Shroud of Turin of AD 1260 - 1390 (rounded down/up to nearest 10 yr). These results therefore provide conclusive evidence that the linen of the Shroud of Turin is mediaeval.
The results of radiocarbon measurements from the three laboratories on four textile samples, a total of twelve data sets, show that none of the measurements differs from its appropriate mean value by more than two standard deviations. The results for the three control samples agree well with previous radiocarbon measurements and/or historical dates.