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FTIR = 300 BC + 400 years; Raman spectroscopy = 200 BC + 500 years; and multi-parametric mechanical = 400 AD + 400 years.
8 for FTIR, 11 for Raman, and 12 for the mechanical test.
John 20:6-7 New International Version (NIV) Then Simon Peter came along behind him and went straight into the tomb. He saw the strips of linen lying there, as well as the cloth that had been wrapped around Jesus’ head. The cloth was still lying in its place, separate from the linen.
the object itself has all the stylistic and material characteristics of a typical Hebrew burial cloth used in Palestine in Ancient times.
Scientists at the Lamont-Doherty Geological Laboratory of Columbia University at Palisades, N.Y., reported today in the British journal Nature that some estimates of age based on carbon analyses were wrong by as much as 3,500 years. They arrived at this conclusion by comparing age estimates obtained using two different methods - analysis of radioactive carbon in a sample and determination of the ratio of uranium to thorium in the sample. In some cases, the latter ratio appears to be a much more accurate gauge of age than the customary method of carbon dating, the scientists said.
Dr. Alan Zindler, a professor of geology at Columbia University who is a member of the Lamont-Doherty research group, said age estimates using the carbon dating and uranium-thorium dating differed only slightly for the period from 9,000 years ago to the present.
The shroud appears first time in History in 525 AD in the City of Edessa, Turkey, where it was exhibited as the Mandylion. A document of the VI century found in that city, called Acts of Thaddaeus says it was there since the 1st century traced back to the time of the King Abgar V.
In the mid 7th century there is a letter written by Archbishop Gewargis Silwa, head of the Church of the East in Iraq, disclosed an unpublished mid-7th century mentioning the existence of the relic in Edessa.
Also it is mentioned as being owned by the Orthodox Christian community of Edessa in other documents of the The 8th and 9th centuries from Jacobite Patriarch Dionysius of Tell-Machre , Turkey.
The Byzantines took it to Constantinople during the expansion of the Muslim Persians to that area, records indicate that happened around the year 544-5, this is referred in the Evagrius’ Greek Ecclesiastical History, written about 595.
The Tremissis coin (692 – 695) from the realm of Justinian II has a Christ face that shows 188 points of congruence with the Shroud face. This is evidence that that the shroud was owned by the Byzantine Emperors.
It was kept in the The Pharos Church near the imperial residence, the Boucoleon Palace at the Bosphorus Shore. When in 1037 a severe drought threatened the city “Emperor Michael IV personally carried the Image of Edessa in procession to the Church of the Virgin at Blachernae to plead for rain” (Wilson 2010: 178 – 9).
The Shroud remained in Athens after the sack of Constantinople in 1204 until it came into the hands the French templar knights during the fourth crusade in 1311. There is manuscript evidence dated 1 August 1205.
Geoffrey de Charny the father knight of the templars inherited the cloth to his son of the same name in his will written before to die burn in the stake in 1314.
In April 10 (or 16), 1349 during the Hundred Year War between France and England an outbreak Black Death plague was ravaging most of Europe when Geoffrey de Charny, a French knight, writes to Pope Clement VI reporting his intention to build a church at Lirey, France to store the relic.
According with official records of France the relic was exhibited in that chapel publicly in 1355 by his owner the Templar Geoffrey de Charny.