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Wetlands and infectious diseases

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posted on Jan, 7 2017 @ 09:35 PM
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Abstract

There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease.

At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment.

The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs.

The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed. - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov


Current risks with our water supply

The main parasitic diseases associated with water development projects are schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and malaria. These four diseases have been given priority by the World Bank (Tiffen, 1989) because:

• they can cause death and/or severe disability;

• a large proportion of the population at risk becomes ill;

• the diseases are difficult to control once they become widespread or endemic; and

• ill health lasts a long time.

Other diseases such as Japanese encephalitis are important in more restricted geographical areas.

The increase in artificial wetlands (i.e., water resource development) and the destruction of natural wetlands to decrease disease risk are the major concerns associated with wetlands and disease today.

- scielo.br; World Bank (Tiffen, 1989)


More from World's Water 1998-1999 biennial report


• one-half the world's population lacks basic sanitation services. More than one billion people lack potable drinking water;

• nearly 250 million cases of cholera, dysentery, and other water-related diseases are reported each year;

• water-borne diseases kill between 5-10 million people a year;

• more water for a growing population means greater demand for fresh water for industry, agriculture, and urban areas; and

• more water for human and economic demands means less water available for natural ecosystems, including wetlands and forests. - WCD, 1998); scielo.br



Other hazards with our irrigation systems

• soils present drainage problems, and drainage channels are absent or poorly maintained;

• rice or sugarcane is cultivated;

• reservoirs are built, or pits are left with standing water;

• canals are unlined or have unchecked vegetation growth; and

• there is settlement of new immigrants or resettlement of residents into more compact settlements. People without immunity may come into contact with a new disease, or they may bring a new source of infection with them. New dense resettlements can facilitate disease transmission. - (Tiffen, 1989); scielo.br



Here are some charts




Links to full articles: www.scielo.br...
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov...
What do you guys think?

edit on 7-1-2017 by supermilkman because: (no reason given)

edit on 7-1-2017 by supermilkman because: (no reason given)


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edit on Sun Jan 8 2017 by DontTreadOnMe because: (no reason given)




posted on Jan, 7 2017 @ 10:25 PM
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a reply to: supermilkman


There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease.

There is an association between jungle and infectious diseases, famine an disease, poverty, war, storms, flooding and infectious disease, too.

Limiting it to 'wetlands', sounds like they want to drain the swamp, kill of the deltas for good, I mean for bad.



posted on Jan, 7 2017 @ 11:38 PM
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Water? Never touch the stuff.
Fish fook in it.



posted on Jan, 7 2017 @ 11:49 PM
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a reply to: supermilkman

My favorite thing about your article is where you write

"Here are some charts"

Like they are just filler.

Question, what do you think? What are the arguments for or against this subject?



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 01:56 AM
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originally posted by: intrptr
a reply to: supermilkman


There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease.

There is an association between jungle and infectious diseases, famine an disease, poverty, war, storms, flooding and infectious disease, too.

Limiting it to 'wetlands', sounds like they want to drain the swamp, kill of the deltas for good, I mean for bad.




Yes, you're right. Basically everything poses a possible threat. The main thing is that our water supply is probably toxic.

In my third industrial revolution thread I have given suggests for
A: replacing chemical water treatment with Electro-deionization and reverse osmosis systems
B: using renewable biofuels that can purify human waste water.


Another issue that I don't know how to solve is our trade, commuting, etc. I guess develop immunities to diseases at this point?
edit on 8-1-2017 by supermilkman because: (no reason given)



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 01:59 AM
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originally posted by: TheAlleghenyGentleman
a reply to: supermilkman

My favorite thing about your article is where you write

"Here are some charts"

Like they are just filler.

Question, what do you think? What are the arguments for or against this subject?


I think the tables speak for themself. Once a point has been made there's no reason to keep over-analyzing it.



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 02:03 AM
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a reply to: supermilkman

Here's a diagram of Nanofiltration. It can purify sea water.




posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 02:05 AM
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Where do you live?



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 02:16 AM
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a reply to: supermilkman

Of course chemically treated water is better than drinking straight from river basins. Also just realized I'm splitting hairs with the algae.

Chemicals used for disinfection
www.lenntech.com...

Chemicals that are used are for instance sodium chloride, potassium chloride, citric acid and chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide cleansing serves the removal of organic contaminants on ion exchange resins. - Lenntech


Environmental groups and concerns over water treatment process
investigations.nbcnews.com...< br />

Researchers analyzed results from water quality tests done in 2011 at 201 large municipal water systems that serve more than 100 million people in 43 states. They found trihalomethanes, a byproduct of chlorination, in every system. The EPA calls some members of this class of chemicals “probable human carcinogens” and studies have linked them to bladder cancer, birth defects and miscarriages. However, only one water treatment system exceeded the EPA’s limits for the chemicals, which was set at 80 parts per billion in 1998.

But the report argued that the EPA’s limits are too lax, citing several studies linking even lower levels of the chemicals to health problems. For example, in 2011 a French research team analyzing data from three countries found that men exposed to more than 50 parts per billion of trihalomethanes [try-hal-o-MEH-thanes] had significantly increased cancer risks.



CDC - Chemicals used for disinfection
www.cdc.gov...

Disinfection

After the water has been filtered, a disinfectant (for example, chlorine, chloramine) may be added in order to kill any remaining parasites, bacteria, and viruses, and to protect the water from germs when it is piped to homes and businesses.


So even though these chemicals are better than the alternative, I think reverse osmosis, Nanofiltration, and EDI would work better.

The algae can be used to purify sewer water then be processed again.

Yes, I'm also aware that toilet-to-tap programs already exist.



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 02:20 AM
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a reply to: c2oden

Right now in Kansas City. Long term goal is to travel. Got to work and study first.



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 02:22 AM
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When the BP oil spill happened there was a news article of this company trying to get a contract to help clean up. Guess it never happened since BP decided to go the corexit way. I think this companies technology has a lot of potential in helping to treat contaminated water and making it reusable for future use.
Ecosphere Technology


Ecosphere Technologies Saves Local Marina From Closing Down; Destroys Toxic Algae Bloom



STUART, FL -- (Marketwired) -- 07/20/16 -- Ecosphere Technologies, Inc. (OTCQB: ESPH), a technology development and intellectual property licensing company, today announced that it completed a one week operation to revitalize a local marina that was virtually shut down due to a toxic cyanobacteria "blue-green algae" bloom the size of a football field with 4" to 12" thick of toxic algae and hundreds of dead fish on the surface. Presenting not only an environmental disaster, but also a health hazard to the local community, Ecosphere deployed its equipment and personnel at its own cost to help save the local business and to demonstrate the effectiveness of its patented, high-volume, chemical-free water treatment technology.


algae bloom before and after treatmen of ozonix
edit on 8-1-2017 by Alchemst7 because: (no reason given)



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 02:25 AM
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a reply to: supermilkman

Or maybe instead of replacing chemical water treatment we just add another process of ion exchange and reverse osmosis system towards the end of it?

Nanofiltration would be great for ships and the Navy.



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 02:27 AM
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a reply to: supermilkman

Then again the Navy already uses desalinization. A lot of this isn't really a big problem I guess.



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 02:39 AM
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a reply to: supermilkman

Here's a cool picture.

Ships are being used as desalination ports.


edit on 8-1-2017 by supermilkman because: (no reason given)



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 02:46 AM
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a reply to: supermilkman

Here is the ideal water purification process



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 02:52 AM
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originally posted by: Alchemst7
When the BP oil spill happened there was a news article of this company trying to get a contract to help clean up. Guess it never happened since BP decided to go the corexit way. I think this companies technology has a lot of potential in helping to treat contaminated water and making it reusable for future use.
Ecosphere Technology


Ecosphere Technologies Saves Local Marina From Closing Down; Destroys Toxic Algae Bloom



STUART, FL -- (Marketwired) -- 07/20/16 -- Ecosphere Technologies, Inc. (OTCQB: ESPH), a technology development and intellectual property licensing company, today announced that it completed a one week operation to revitalize a local marina that was virtually shut down due to a toxic cyanobacteria "blue-green algae" bloom the size of a football field with 4" to 12" thick of toxic algae and hundreds of dead fish on the surface. Presenting not only an environmental disaster, but also a health hazard to the local community, Ecosphere deployed its equipment and personnel at its own cost to help save the local business and to demonstrate the effectiveness of its patented, high-volume, chemical-free water treatment technology.


algae bloom before and after treatmen of ozonix


Thanks for the link. It looks like it can purify sludge into pure water.



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 03:02 AM
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a reply to: supermilkman
I have a huge interest in water works and will eventually open up my own water store to offer the community the best water available to drink. Ecosphere uses no chemicals but a combination of ozone, hydro and acustic cavitation and
Electrochemical oxidation. This process kills and destroys all bacteria and parasites in the water.



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 03:10 AM
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originally posted by: Alchemst7
a reply to: supermilkman
I have a huge interest in water works and will eventually open up my own water store to offer the community the best water available to drink. Ecosphere uses no chemicals but a combination of ozone, hydro and acustic cavitation and
Electrochemical oxidation. This process kills and destroys all bacteria and parasites in the water.


Sounds like a plan. So it's a combination of chemical water treatment and then electro-deionization? Sounds good. I just recommend a reverse osmosis system towards the end of it to create ultra-pure water.

This is unrelated but it shows a typical water treatment process.


edit on 8-1-2017 by supermilkman because: (no reason given)



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 03:33 AM
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a reply to: supermilkman

Nice video. My mom retired from the Las Vegas water polution control facility on east side of Vegas. I got to go many times to tour the facility and see how it works.



posted on Jan, 8 2017 @ 07:44 AM
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Do you know why they speculate that so many are now exhibiting allergies and autoimmune disorders?

It's because so many are obsessed with sterilizing everything. Our immune systems are designed to encounters a certain number of bacteria and viruses in our lifetime and when our immune systems are not challenged, the risk is there for them to start misfiring and attacking us instead because they aren't trained properly.

Now, no one is advocating that we allow serious disease organisms into our water supply, but having your immune system encounter a few bugs here and there is actually good for you. Trust me. I am married to a microbiologist and you pick up a few things.



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