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The virtual photon thing baffles me a little. I get that virtual particles are supposed to be short lived, but as photons live for zero units of proper time I can't see how their lifetime can be used to distinguish between virtual and non-virtual.
Another idea I had was that virtual photons are only those associated with the electromagnetic field, non-virtual ones are not. But in this case, I could not see what was wrong with this: If I have a photon detecting instrument it is just detecting the force carrying particles of the electromagnetic interactions between it and the thing I am using it to observe? (even if that thing is a long way away)
Are virtual photons just photons that you don't observe? Or, is there some kind of photon that is not connected with the electromagnetic field? Or something else? Or perhaps there is no concrete distinction to be made?
If I remember correctly, virtual photons are one of the concepts that are introduced by theoretical calculations of QFT/QED. Basically you can introduce them, because you do not violate Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. They come in handy in certain calculations to do some trickery. – seb Jun 23 '13 at 16:13
In other words, virtual photons don't "exist." They're just tricks of math that work, and give some surprisingly accurate predictions of reality that are so good, we have to accept them as "real." – markovchain Jun 23 '13 at 16:38
Both theory and experiments indicate that the vacuum is not a state of empty space, but is populated by electromagnetic fluctuations at a lowest nonzero level, the Zero Point Energy (ZPE). This debouches into considerable changes of fundamental physics, as shown by a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED) applied to elementary particles, and by a revised ZPE frequency spectrum applied to the expanding universe. The Standard Model based on a vacuum state of empty space is thus replaced by RQED, thereby resulting in massive elementary particles from the beginning, independently of the theory by Higgs. Also the basic properties of the Higgs-like particle detected at CERN can be reproduced by RQED. It further leads to new fundamental results beyond the theories by Dirac and Higgs, such as to a deduced value of the elementary net charge, magnetic confinement of charged particle configurations, intrinsic local particle charges, photon spin with a very small but nonzero photon rest mass, and needle-like particle-wave properties which contribute to the understanding of the photoelectric effect and two-slit experiments. The real macroscopic pressure due to the revised ZPE frequency distribution further influences the dynamics of the expanding universe, by the ZPE photon pressure gradient acting as dark energy, and the ZPE photon energy density acting as dark matter. This results in a model being consistent with the observed scale, the rate of expansion, and the stability of a flat expanding observable universe.
Electromagnetic Radiation Energy and Planck’ Constant
Mahmoud E. Yousif Physics Department - The University of Nairobi P.O.Box 30197 Nairobi-Kenya
ABSTRACT -- The components of Electromagnetic Radiation (EM-R) mechanism are analyzed; these includes the Flipping Time (), and the Flipping Frequency (); the condition initiating F-F and the formation of EM-R is suggested with a new formula for the speed of light c; the energy is classified into the input Kinetic Energy () and the output Radiation Energy (), with a new formula derived for the output Radiation Energy (), this formula is compared with the input Kinetic Energy (); different structural formulas for Planck’ Constant and its relations to Flopping Time () and Flopping Frequency () are derived and analyzed, and a relationship is establish between the two Flip-Flop Times ( & ) and the combined energies of Circular Magnetic Field (CMF) and Electric Field (EF), as this relation produced EM-R, it also gives the products of Flipping Times () and both CMF-EF, forming the Planck’ Constant (h).
Keywords: Electromagnetic radiation Energy; Planck’ Constant; Flip-Flop; Circular Magnetic Field; Electric Field.
Holographic Principle and Quantum Physics
Zolt´an Batiz ∗ and Bhag C. Chauhan †1
1 Centro de F´ısica Te´orica das Part´ıculas (CFTP)
Departmento de Fisica, Instituto Superior T´ecnico
Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisboa-PORTUGAL
(Dated: February 2, 2008)
The concept of holography has lured philosophers of science for decades, and is becoming moreand more popular in several front areas of science, e.g. in the physics of black holes. In this paperwe try to understand things as if the visible universe were a reading of a lower dimensional hologram
generated in hyperspace. We performed the whole process of creating and reading holograms of a point particle in a virtual space by using computer simulations.
We claim that the fuzziness in quantum mechanics, in statistical physics and thermodynamics is due to the fact that we do not see the real image of the object, but a holographic projection of it. We found that the projection of a point particle is a de Broglie-type wave. This indicates that holography could be the origin of the wave nature of a particle.
We have also noted that one cannot stabilize the noise (or fuzziness) interms of the integration grid-points of the hologram, it means that one needs to give the grid-points a physical signiﬁcance. So we futher claim that the space is quantized, which supports the basic assumption of quantum gravity. Our study in the paper, although is more qualitative, yet gives asmoking gun hint of a holographic basis of the physical reality. PACS numbers: 42.40.Jv, 03.65.-w, 04.60.-m, 04.70.-s, 01.70.+w∗ email@example.com † firstname.lastname@example.org
The theory of holography was ﬁrst developed by Hungarian scientist Dennis Gabor around 1947-48 while working to improve the resolution of an electron microscope . The ﬁrst holograms were of poor quality, but the principle was good. According to the principle of holography, a detailed three dimensional image of an object can be recorded in a two dimensional photographic ﬁlm and the image can be reproduced back in a three dimensional space. The complex patterned information stored in the ﬁlm is called ’hologram’ (see in Fig.
1). The holograms have a strange feature, unlike the conventional photographic ﬁlm, once you cut a hologram into pieces each piece is capable of reconstructing the entire image,although with lesser and varying resolutions.FIG. 1: Image taken from 
The holographic concept has lured philosophers of science for decades [3, 4], and is be coming more and more popular in several front areas of science; attracting the researchers of cosmology, astrophysics, extra-dimensions, string theory, nuclear and particle physics and
neurology  etc...
One can ﬁnd hundreds of papers in the internet discussing the relevance of holography in these ﬁelds. Some articles claim that our visible and highly complex universe is actually a hologram of a higher dimensional but simpler reality. The holographic principle is now widely being used to relate seemingly unrelated things, like quantum mechanics and gravity .
Theoretical results about black holes suggest that the universe could be like a gigantic hologram . So our seemingly three-dimensional universe could be completely equivalent to alternative quantum ﬁelds and physical laws ”painted” on a distant,2 vast surface.