The Peace of God to all that belong to the Light,
In 1531 Mexico was still living in the time of a clash in between the Hispanic Civilization, one of the most advance of its time in Europe, and the
Aztec one, also among the most advanced of the Americas.
That year a fascinating event took place in a ritual adoration site to the Goddess Tonatzin, the oracle of the mother of all the Gods according with
the Nahuatl mythology, whose festivity matched with the winter solstice.
This is a certified historic fact, not just only a popular legend or an abstract myth, it has a very material substance and is one that still remains
in mystery, resisting any analysis to try to expose it as an Artwork, moreover, its ultimate nature has not been fully established by modern
After years of exhaustive test of a very concrete garment originally made of two pieces of cloth, that shows an image stamped of a woman dressed with
royal Aztec Attributes, an object which veneration will facilitated enormously the massive conversion of the pagan ancient Mexico to Catholicism, its
origin is a mystery.
It is not possibly deny on a serious base the Historicity of the event occurred that year in Mexico.
First at all the own King of Spain Phillip 2nd gave as a present to his Admiral in the Lepanto battle against the Turks Andrea Doria ( occurred as
elary as 1535)an image of a
virgin that was brought to him as a gift of the second bishop of Mexico city, as the Holy advocation of St Mary of Guadalupe appeared in the hill of
Tepeyac, in the Mexico valley, north of Tenochtitlan.
Second, just few years ago, before the canonization of Juan Diego, the aborigine that experienced the apparitions, in 1995 an Aztec codex the Escalada
was found with a clear depiction of the Guadalupe Virgin, that was dated on around 1548 and contains an already certified signature of Juan of
Zumarraga, first Bishop of Mexico City.
The lady called also Cuahtlelolpe was the origin of a huge comfrontation in between two of the most emblematic Catholic orders, the Franciscans and
the Dominic ones.
Franciscan friars rejected it , claiming that it was a pagan icon and a possible painting done by a native artist as a depiction of the Tonatzin
Aztec deity, the Aztec Goddess considered the mother of the ancient Mexico's pantheon.
Dominic friars instead used the devotion of the aborigines to the lady of the Tepeyac as a powerful vehicle of conversion of no less than 8 millions
people in ancient Mexico to the Roman Catholic faith.
In 1936 Richard Kuhn, an atheistic Austrian Chemist that was Nobel Prize recipient was unable to determine the chemical composition or the physican
structure of the colors of the image.
In 1979 a prestigious photography expert with ties with the NASA: Philip Callahan, biophysicist, USDA entomologist, NASA consultant, specializing in
infrared imaging, checked the same image with infrared rays to find that behind some minor retouch additions that probably were done along the
centuries, to add Christian elements of devotion around the original image, like an Angel and Moon at her feet, or some sun rays around her
silhouette, but there were no brush strokes at all on the body and face itself of her, no traces of any known pigment.
Callahan was allowed direct access to visually inspect, and photograph, the image without any glass. He took numerous infrared photographs of the
front of the tilma. Taking notes that were later published, his assistant noted that the original art work was neither cracked nor flaked, while later
additions (gold leaf, silver plating the moon) showed serious signs of wear, if not complete deterioration.
Callahan could not explain the excellent state of preservation of the un-retouched areas of the image on the tilma, particularly the upper two-thirds
of the image. His findings, with photographs, were published in 1981.
The same year Dr Jose Aste Tossmann who was expert of optical analysis of the NASA checked the eyes of the image stamped on the Tilma ( the name of a
cloth made of Ayate fibers) and found incredibly reflections that correspond to a group of people that correspond to what the story said to us were
among the very first witnesses that knew the cloth directly from Juan Diego.
The first known written account of the history of the miracle of these apparitions and how the image was found happened in the paper " Imagen de la
Virgen Maria, Madre de Dios de Guadalupe", published in 1648 by Miguel Sánchez, a diocesan priest of Mexico City.
The second written account is a 36-page tract in the Nahuatl language, Huei tlamahuiçoltica ("The Great Event"), that it was published by 1649.
This publication includes a chapter known as the Nican mopohua ("Here it is recounted"), that tells the story of Juan Diego. The composition and
authorship of the Huei tlamahuiçoltica is assigned by a majority of scholars to Luis Laso de la Vega, vicar of the sanctuary of Tepeyac from
However, there is the suspicion that this is just the first time was printed, and it seems to be based on a much older version, a manuscript of the
Nican Mopohua, that may have be written from the late 1500s by Antonio Valeriano (ca. 1531–1605), who was a native Aztec man who had been educated
by the Franciscans , an assistant of the Conquest chronist Bernardino de Sahagún.
Few years ago it was found preserved in the New York Public library that manuscript version of the Nican Mopohua, that appears to be datable to the
mid-1500s, and may have been written by Valeriano, the same used by Laso to publish his Huei tlamahuiçoltica.
On 1666 a scholar Luis Becerra Tanco published in Mexico his history of the apparitions under the name "Origen milagroso del santuario de Nuestra
Señora de Guadalupe," and it was again republished in Spain in 1675 as "Felicidad de Mexico en la admirable aparición de la virgen María de
Guadalupe y origen de su milagrosa Imagen, que se venera extramuros de aquella ciudad."
In the same way, in 1688, Jesuit Father Francisco de Florencia published "La Estrella del Norte de México" with the history of the same
The thread explores one of the most intriguing events in which two absolutely different civilizations converged in a common cult to a figure that is
equally respected by all: The genuine Mexican aborigines, the Spaniards and the relatively new mixed people product of the contact in between the
It is not exaggerate to say that Guadalupe lady as it was called by Zumarraga bishop , after a wooden image made by St Luke venerated in Extremadura,
the land of Cortez, is a cult that built Mexico as the modern nation she is the core of the National identity of 110 million people and together with
the holy sudary of Oviedo & the Holy Shroud a major relic of Christendom.
The Angel of Lightness
edit on 12/15/2016 by The angel of light because: (no reason given)