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Genetics help please

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posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 05:56 PM
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a reply to: tikbalang

Lactose persistence does not shut down. Lactose non persistence ( Hypolactasia) does shut down. The fact that Lactose persistence is due to a SNP mutation, means it is a change in the DNA, thus the protien (enzyme) involved. You can silence gene with a post transnational modification. The DNA is not changed, so much as its ability to express the appropriate enzyme (protein) IS changed.

I know that seems a small difference, but one results in a different combination of nucleic acids, which give different amino acids (well ok single amino acid). For a similar effect, go look at the various forms of haemoglobin mutations. Most differences (including sickle cell) are also SNPs and that is a single changed amino acid, but if it is in the right/wrong place it has consequences.




posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 06:27 PM
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a reply to: Noinden

Lactase persistence is the continued activity of the enzyme lactase in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammal species, the activity of the enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning - does not shut down, its reduced.
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Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk products. Those affected vary in the amount of lactose they can tolerate before symptoms develop.
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Lactose intolerance is different than a milk allergy.
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Primary hypolactasia, or primary lactase deficiency, is genetic, only affects adults, and is caused by the absence of a lactase persistence allele. In individuals without the lactase persistence allele, less lactase is produced by the body over time, leading to hypolactasia in adulthood. The frequency of lactase persistence, which allows lactose tolerance, varies enormously worldwide
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Secondary hypolactasia or secondary lactase deficiency, also called acquired hypolactasia or acquired lactase deficiency, is caused by an injury to the small intestine. This form of lactose intolerance can occur in both infants and lactase persistent adults and is generally reversible. It may be caused by acute gastroenteritis, coeliac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis,chemotherapy, intestinal parasites (such as giardia), or other environmental causes.
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variation' in at a particular locus in a population is less than 1% it is considered mutation....and...if more than 1% it is termed as a SNP - Single-nucleotide polymorphism -
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SNPs underlie differences in our susceptibility to disease; a wide range of human diseases, e.g. sickle-cell anemia, β-thalassemia and cystic fibrosis result from SNPs.
The severity of illness and the way our body responds to treatments are also manifestations of genetic variations
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Everyone is born with lactose persistence? It decreases with age if i got it correctly?



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 06:48 PM
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a reply to: tikbalang



Lactose non persistence ( Hypolactasia) can be one of several conditions. It could be the 65% or so of the population who do not have Lactose persistence (tollerance). In which case it is the reduction of lactase after infancy. It could also be the more serious condition where almost no (or even none) lactase is ever produced. Thus not all of the population are born with lactose persistence. Indeed what is meant by lactose tolerance is the possessing one of the mutations where as a non in fact you have sufficien lactase to digest diary.

SNPs are one of several types of mutation DNA can undergo. It might not do a damned thing, or it might slightly alter DNA such that the resultant proteins are different. Lactose persistence and many different Hemoglobin forms (such as sickle cell) are the result of them. So while SNPs may underlie differences in our susceptibility to disease, they also are how we've evolved in many cases, as many of these mutations give a benefit.



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 07:04 PM
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a reply to: Noinden

wasnt sickle cell a way for nature to battle with malaria?



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 07:32 PM
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a reply to: tikbalang

By nature you mean, individuals with this SNP mutation had an advantage against malaria. It is still a SNP mutation.

Just as of lactose persistence in at least one form is associated with a SNP mutation



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 07:54 PM
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a reply to: Noinden

Are viruses the cause for mutations in the SNP?

Edit: But in many cases, evolutionary change is based on the accumulation of many mutations, each having a small effect. Whether the mutations are large or small, however, the same chain of causation applies: changes at the DNA level propagate up to the phenotype
edit on 20161128 by tikbalang because: (no reason given)



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 08:33 PM
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a reply to: tikbalang

Many things can cause mutations, this includes transcription errors (the mechanism to make sure DNA is faithfully replicated) screwing up. SO I guess a virus could be a cause. It really is hard to tell what causes a mutation.

SNPs can also be tracked in non coding areas of the genome. This is how the various genetic tests of heritage are done, by looking at known SNP differences in either the mitochondrial DNA (from your mother) or Y-chromosome (from your dad if you are male). None of these changes cause physical changes, but these mutations occur at a known rate, so can be used.

Yes evolution is the accumulation of many changes.

So where are all these researches heading. You were talking about Moses, and proto Indo-European warlords with regards to DNA in another thread.



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 08:38 PM
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a reply to: Noinden




So where are all these researches heading. You were talking about Moses, and proto Indo-European warlords with regards to DNA in another thread.


Im not sure yet, im dividing sections into categories.. Im not sure if i have anything, or have..



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 08:44 PM
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a reply to: tikbalang

Ok well I will keep trying to give you info.



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 09:30 PM
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a reply to: tikbalang

May I ask what you are compiling? It would be a tad easier to explain if we had a hint of what your are compiling and researching.

I do not mind what it is as I enjoy explaining key areas/info to people, however it would be much easier to explain it in one go instead of answering a multitude of little questions.

As with Noinden, I'll try also.



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 09:33 PM
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a reply to: MuonToGluon

If you look at some of his other threads he talks about some things I think this is leading too. I'm unclear what the hells that is however, but two are about things I know

(a) Science (Chemistry and Biochemistry/Bioinformatics)
and
(b) Indo-European history and Myths



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 09:42 PM
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originally posted by: Noinden
a reply to: tikbalang

Many things can cause mutations, this includes transcription errors (the mechanism to make sure DNA is faithfully replicated) screwing up. SO I guess a virus could be a cause. It really is hard to tell what causes a mutation.

SNPs can also be tracked in non coding areas of the genome. This is how the various genetic tests of heritage are done, by looking at known SNP differences in either the mitochondrial DNA (from your mother) or Y-chromosome (from your dad if you are male). None of these changes cause physical changes, but these mutations occur at a known rate, so can be used.

Yes evolution is the accumulation of many changes.

So where are all these researches heading. You were talking about Moses, and proto Indo-European warlords with regards to DNA in another thread.



I think with an RNA virus certainly it could be a cause.

Why is the OP being so coy and weird though...? What's with the cloak and dagger? Just tell them what you are trying to figure out. Ask specific questions. It certainly seems like you have something specific in mind. Plenty of people here who can help you.



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 10:08 PM
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a reply to: redhorse

Oh yes it does happen. Its just very hard sometimes to tell what caused a mutation. Now if it was a DNA/RNA insertion, sure, you get a good idea. When its a SNP however, it could be radiation, chemical, virus, transcription error etc. End result, one has the mutation, and the consequences (if any) ... sadly I've yet to get a healing factor and claws.



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 10:09 PM
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a reply to: Noinden

Oh and the OP is coy, possibly because English is his second language. Also this is ATS, so who knows. He and I have been butting heads for a month, so it might just be caution that I'll try to sink his battleship. Last thought .... he's got a thought he can not quite grasp and is working through it.



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 10:22 PM
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a reply to: MuonToGluon

See it like Kuhn and Popper, one step at a time leading to its destination.. Where it leads i have no idea..

Im looking for a story that is quite simple;" The King and his Sorcerer "

You guys are specialized in a field that i would get lost in, or spend to much time on things that arent useful. I come in blind faith and trust.



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 10:28 PM
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a reply to: Noinden

nice to see you two being amicable



posted on Nov, 28 2016 @ 11:44 PM
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This thread in a way is kind of funny so let me provide you with state of the art research into Genetics....



What if humans could regrow an amputated arm or leg, or completely restore nervous system function after a spinal cord injury?


www.sciencedaily.com...



posted on Nov, 29 2016 @ 10:02 PM
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a reply to: kibric

More I feel we understand how each other communicate a bit better now



posted on Dec, 1 2016 @ 11:18 PM
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a reply to: Noinden

How does fermentation process work, what is it applicable to? What meat? Fish? etc?



posted on Dec, 2 2016 @ 07:51 PM
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a reply to: tikbalang

Any thing can ferment. It is simply turning carbohydrates (Sugars) to alcohols, acids, and gases. So technically you can ferment meat, though I'd not try to eat that myself. Why? Because that is how salmonella, listeria, and strains of E.coli cause spoilage.

Looking at some of your other posts, are you thinking about the fermentation of milk/dairy?

How does it work? Do you want the chemistryor just the executive summary?

If it is the executive summary it goes like this ....

The Sugar (technical term is carbohydrate) is convereted to an alcohol giving off ccarbon dioxide (its how they make sparkling wines, and beers).

C6H12O6 → 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2

However it can go beyond ethanol (or other alcohols) and form carbyoyxlic acids (vinegar) via an aldehyde. Aldehydes are often what give bad hangovers, they're not that good for you.

So they make Vinegar by over oxidizing (fermenting) sugars.

Is this what you are after?



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