I did a little bit of study into the inner workings of the particle. Then wrote my own summary of what I had read. Can anyone tell me, is my
So I was surprised (Not really.) when I found out recently that electrons, protons, and neutrons are not the smallest things to exist in an atom.
So INSIDE the nucleus there are protons, and neutrons. An even number(Unless an isotopic variant of the common element.)of both, except in Hydrogen,
where there is 1 proton, and no neutrons.
A neutron (and protons too.) are composed of smaller particles called quarks. These quarks come in 6 different varieties!
2 light weight quarks, called up quarks (2/3 charge.) and down quarks (-1/3 Charge). Up quarks are created by the particle decay of it's more massive
counter parts who carry the same charge: Charm, and the larger Top.
Down quarks are created by the particle decay of it's more massive counter parts who carry the same charge: Strange, and the larger Bottom.
A neutron is composed of 1 UP Quark(2/3) and 2 DOWN Quarks(-1/3) So: 2/3 + (-1/3 + -1/3) = 0 Charge
A proton has the opposite, 1 DOWN and 2 UP So: -1/3 + (2/3+2/3) = -1/3 + 4/3 = +1 Charge
But how about the electrons we see zooming around the nucleus? How are they made up?
So it turns out there are these things we named Gauge Bosons. These are particles that actually carry forces between other particles(Quarks, Leptons,
ect.) These particles are actually small bundles of energy! There are 4 types of Gauge Bosons, but only 1 has any type of charge: Photon, Gluon, W And
Z Bosons. Now, these 4 types of energy pockets, or force carriers, serve different purposes within the atom itself. The gluons actually serve as the
bond between quarks! They "glu" them together in-order to create the larger picture, Protons and Neutrons.
The photons serve as less of a bond, and more or a connector for the quarks. They allow electromagnetic forces to interact with the quarks and
therefore the protons or neutrons, while it gluons are more or less allows something we call Strong Nuclear Force (Pretty much sub atomic
gravitation.) to occur between quarks.
W and Z Bosons are pretty much the same: Z Bosons have no charge, and are only there to help conserve energy transfer between Positive and Negative W
Bosons. These Bosons are responsible for Weak Nuclear Force transfer. The reason these Bosons are the most important part of explaining the Standard
model of the atom is that the three basic particles (electrons, protons, and neutrons.) are composed of Quarks (protons and neutrons.) or Leptons
(Electrons) Quarks and Leptons are fermions, or particles that are affected by weak nuclear force. Once three quarks create a proton, or neutron, they
become Hadrons, or particles that are affected by Strong nuclear force.
So, electrons are actually CREATED AS A BIPRODUCT when W Bosons allow the transfer of weak nuclear force, to act on quarks. depending on if the charge
W is positive or negative will determine weather the biproduct is an electron, or a positron. The charge of W will also determine if the quark is UP
or DOWN. Because W's charge determines UP or DOWN, it ultimately determines whether the end result is a proton, or a neutron.
3 Quarks (Determined by energy transfer of small nuclear forces from the W+/- Bosons) bond together by Gluons, to create protons and neutrons, this
creates the nucleus. The bi-product of energy transfers (Radioactive decay) within the nucleus creates electrons that always have a negative
Why is the electron always negative? The true answer is, it's not, sometimes it's positive! When it's positive, we call it a positron.
So, if a Boson within 3 quarks of a proton (1 down, 2 up) allows a transfer of energy that changes the UP(+2/3) quark to a DOWN (-1/3)quark. The total
charge of that proton becomes 0, and it is now a neutron! (Because a proton is +1 charge, and when the UP becomes DOWN, the change is charge is -1) If
this is the case, the biproduct is a positron (+1 charge emitted from the atom as a biproduct of the weak force that changed the proton into a
neutron.) If it where the opposite, the biproduct would be +1, or lose a negative charge, and would be an electron.
edit on 10-11-2016 by
DeadCat because: (no reason given)