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Re-examination suggests Paul Kammerer's scientific 'fraud' was a genuine discovery of epigenetic

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posted on Oct, 31 2016 @ 10:36 AM
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Paul Kammerer committed suicide in 1926 after being accused of fraud in his famous experiments of "inheritance of acquired traits" with the midwife toad. A new study shows how recent advances in molecular epigenetics and re-examination of his descriptions suggest the experiments were actually authentic.

The alleged scientific fraud by Paul Kammerer is perhaps one of the most controversial mysteries in the history of biology. …His experiments provided impressive evidence that environmental life experiences could have a direct, inheritable effect on progeny, as maintained by his intellectual predecessor Lamarck, and by Darwin himself. …


Re-examination suggests Paul Kammerer's scientific 'fraud' was a genuine discovery of epigenetic inheritance

A mystery finally solved, Kammerer’s reputation salvaged - and evidence he was framed. Great fodder for a documentary or true story drama.

The science is about “inheritance of acquired traits” - epigenetic inheritance - and accepting that “genetics” does not and cannot explain the whole inheritance picture. There be other forces in play. Even Darwin knew this.


…Kammerer had a unique way of thinking for his time. While most of his contemporaries would split into opposite "Mendelian" and "Lamarckian" bands, he combined the experimental principles of both schools of thought. He was also unusual among Lamarckians in that he did not believe that the inheritance of acquired traits was necessarily progressive or beneficial, but could also produce neutral or detrimental traits. …



A few hold-outs still argue that “no special mechanism exists by which environmental change can directly modify inheritance, and that every apparent case can be ultimately explained by indirect effects of natural selection and conventional genetics.” But …


…these views started to change drastically since the 1990's, along with the progress in techniques to study molecular genetics. These uncovered several molecular mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, that could directly change inheritance in response to the environment. The modern field of epigenetics studies those changes in gene expression that do not involve a mutation, but are nevertheless inherited in absence of the signal or event that initiated the change.



And I won’t even mention the role proteins and prions play, or the fact that amino acids code for proteins’ conformations and thus, their functions.





posted on Oct, 31 2016 @ 10:41 AM
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His experiments provided impressive evidence that environmental life experiences could have a direct, inheritable effect on progeny, as maintained by his intellectual predecessor Lamarck, and by Darwin himself. …

Which still proves either adaptation or evolution.

But since I don't see any man-bear-pigs in the 'environment'...



posted on Oct, 31 2016 @ 11:04 AM
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originally posted by: intrptr


His experiments provided impressive evidence that environmental life experiences could have a direct, inheritable effect on progeny, as maintained by his intellectual predecessor Lamarck, and by Darwin himself. …

Which still proves either adaptation or evolution.

But since I don't see any man-bear-pigs in the 'environment'...


Oh there is one my friend. There is one.



posted on Oct, 31 2016 @ 11:12 AM
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originally posted by: In4ormant

originally posted by: intrptr


His experiments provided impressive evidence that environmental life experiences could have a direct, inheritable effect on progeny, as maintained by his intellectual predecessor Lamarck, and by Darwin himself. …

Which still proves either adaptation or evolution.

But since I don't see any man-bear-pigs in the 'environment'...


Oh there is one my friend. There is one.

Only one? There should be many mixed genetic species everywhere. Except thats unlikely since genetics doesn't favor interbreeding. Mutations are dead end, like Mules and ligers or whatever they are called.
edit on 31-10-2016 by intrptr because: spelling



posted on Oct, 31 2016 @ 11:20 AM
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a reply to: intrptr

Yup. It's adaptation - without genetic change.


Cool, huh?



posted on Oct, 31 2016 @ 11:37 AM
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originally posted by: intrptr

originally posted by: In4ormant

originally posted by: intrptr


His experiments provided impressive evidence that environmental life experiences could have a direct, inheritable effect on progeny, as maintained by his intellectual predecessor Lamarck, and by Darwin himself. …

Which still proves either adaptation or evolution.

But since I don't see any man-bear-pigs in the 'environment'...


Oh there is one my friend. There is one.

Only one? There should be many mixed genetic species everywhere. Except thats unlikely since genetics doesn't favor interbreeding. Mutations are dead end, like Mules and ligers or whatever they are called.

Come back when you understand what "epigenetic inheritance" means.
Hint: it has nothing to do with breeding between different species.

Oh, and there is evidence of inter-species breeding producing viable offspring, Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis being the first that comes to mind.


edit on 31-10-2016 by paradoxious because: (no reason given)



posted on Oct, 31 2016 @ 12:12 PM
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a reply to: paradoxious


Oh, and there is evidence of inter-species breeding producing viable offspring, Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis being the first that comes to mind.

Didn't say it didn't exist, said inter species breeding wasn't "favored". Back to man bear pig comment.

Mutations are degenerative not enhancing. The evidence supports adaptation anyway, not 'evolving'. Or are they interchangeable terms?



posted on Oct, 31 2016 @ 12:35 PM
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originally posted by: intrptr
a reply to: paradoxious


Oh, and there is evidence of inter-species breeding producing viable offspring, Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis being the first that comes to mind.

Mutations are degenerative not enhancing. The evidence supports adaptation anyway, not 'evolving'. Or are they interchangeable terms?


So you don't get what epigenetic inheritance is? Strictly speaking, it is not mutation in the DNA sequence at all, but rather the activation or inactivation of genes based on environmental stresses.

An example may be how many species, when faced with periods of famine, produce offspring better able to cope with famine. Nothing specifically changes in the DNA other than what occurs through normal breeding. Conversely, when food is ample, inactive genes will be reactivated, and vice versa, in the offspring.

No man-bear-pig needed to explain this.



posted on Oct, 31 2016 @ 02:17 PM
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a reply to: paradoxious

S&


Did you check out the original paper? intrptr should know that "Previous arguments for mere somatic plasticity have ignored the description of experiments showing heritable germ line modification." ...Or maybe not.


An Epigenetic Perspective on the Midwife Toad Experiments of Paul Kammerer (1880–1926)

Paul Kammerer was the most outstanding neo-Lamarckian experimentalist of the early 20th century. He reported spectacular results in the midwife toad, including crosses of environmentally modified toads with normal toads, where acquired traits were inherited in Mendelian fashion. Accusations of fraud generated a great scandal, ending with Kammerer's suicide. Controversy reignited in the 1970s, when journalist Arthur Koestler argued against these accusations. Since then, others have argued that Kammerer's results, even if real, were not groundbreaking and could be explained by somatic plasticity, inadvertent selection, or conventional genetics. More recently, epigenetics has uncovered mechanisms by which inheritance can respond directly to environmental change, inviting a reanalysis of Kammerer's descriptions. Previous arguments for mere somatic plasticity have ignored the description of experiments showing heritable germ line modification. Alleged inadvertent selection associated with egg mortality can be discarded, since mortality decreased in a single generation, upon repeated exposures. The challenging implications did not escape the attention of Kammerer's noted contemporary, William Bateson, but he reacted with disbelief, thus encouraging fraud accusations. Nowadays, formerly puzzling phenomena can be explained by epigenetic mechanisms. Importantly, Kammerer described parent-of-origin effects, an effect of parental sex on dominance. Epigenetic mechanisms underlie these effects in genomic imprinting and experiments of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. In the early 20th century, researchers had no reason to link them with the inheritance of acquired traits. Thus, the parent-of-origin effects in Kammerer's experiments specifically suggest authenticity. Ultimate proof should come from renewed experimentation. To encourage further research, we present a model of possible epigenetic mechanisms.



posted on Nov, 17 2016 @ 01:08 PM
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Genotype vs phenotype is potentiality vs actuality.

Old weed breeders know this. Nothing builds, identifiers are subtractions. Cheese comes from specific organic fungicides year after year. So does skunk. Strawberry Fields was grown in a strawberry field. It looks, and smells like Strawberries.

Humans arent much different from plants, if you disconnect the root from the mouth and turn it outside the body.



posted on Nov, 18 2016 @ 01:54 AM
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originally posted by: soficrow


Paul Kammerer committed suicide in 1926 after being accused of fraud in his famous experiments of "inheritance of acquired traits" with the midwife toad. A new study shows how recent advances in molecular epigenetics and re-examination of his descriptions suggest the experiments were actually authentic.

The alleged scientific fraud by Paul Kammerer is perhaps one of the most controversial mysteries in the history of biology. …His experiments provided impressive evidence that environmental life experiences could have a direct, inheritable effect on progeny, as maintained by his intellectual predecessor Lamarck, and by Darwin himself. …


Re-examination suggests Paul Kammerer's scientific 'fraud' was a genuine discovery of epigenetic inheritance

A mystery finally solved, Kammerer’s reputation salvaged - and evidence he was framed. Great fodder for a documentary or true story drama.

The science is about “inheritance of acquired traits” - epigenetic inheritance - and accepting that “genetics” does not and cannot explain the whole inheritance picture. There be other forces in play. Even Darwin knew this.


…Kammerer had a unique way of thinking for his time. While most of his contemporaries would split into opposite "Mendelian" and "Lamarckian" bands, he combined the experimental principles of both schools of thought. He was also unusual among Lamarckians in that he did not believe that the inheritance of acquired traits was necessarily progressive or beneficial, but could also produce neutral or detrimental traits. …



A few hold-outs still argue that “no special mechanism exists by which environmental change can directly modify inheritance, and that every apparent case can be ultimately explained by indirect effects of natural selection and conventional genetics.” But …


…these views started to change drastically since the 1990's, along with the progress in techniques to study molecular genetics. These uncovered several molecular mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, that could directly change inheritance in response to the environment. The modern field of epigenetics studies those changes in gene expression that do not involve a mutation, but are nevertheless inherited in absence of the signal or event that initiated the change.



And I won’t even mention the role proteins and prions play, or the fact that amino acids code for proteins’ conformations and thus, their functions.





Amino acids don't "code" for protein conformation. Gosh...internet molecular biologists everywhere. Terrible terminology and insultingly oversimplified. Thermodynamics cause protein folding. The conformation of the protein is whatever its most thermodynamically stable state is. The amino acids side chains are the main players in these interactions. There is no code for the conformation unless you want to play semantics in which you failed since no molecular biologist plays semantics. He/she explains it correctly or else you don't pass biology 101.



posted on Nov, 18 2016 @ 02:11 AM
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originally posted by: JuanDope
Genotype vs phenotype is potentiality vs actuality.

Old weed breeders know this. Nothing builds, identifiers are subtractions. Cheese comes from specific organic fungicides year after year. So does skunk. Strawberry Fields was grown in a strawberry field. It looks, and smells like Strawberries.

Humans arent much different from plants, if you disconnect the root from the mouth and turn it outside the body.


Where is your data to back up your claim??? That's not at all how that works. Can you come up with a reasonable molecular mechanism as to how the genes in a strawberry that code for smell are passed through the soil into a marijuana plant? Since I work in molecular breeding in the agricultural field and used to work in the legal marijuana industry for the 3rd largest operation in the country as the company's chief geneticist I'm just dying to know how this happens.

Also, Strawberry Fields does not look like strawberries lol. It looks like marijuana. I know with 100% certainty that that strain hasn't existed for 15 years at least. It got bred in Vermont and put into cough to create the famous Kyle Kushman cut of Strawberry Cough and that was probably 20 years ago. Not sure how you could extract any knowledge from a strain that was buried in the mid 90s. Go ask Sam the Skunkman yourself if you need knowledge. He probably bred the sht himself. It's called luck. Some strains express smell and flavor very strongly and they were lucky to discover the KK SC pheno. It had nothing to do with strawberries lolololol. Sheeeeeit, even KK SC is a strain that died out and was passed over for superior strains around 2010. We're way ahead of you. Try a legit BB #3 if you're still looking for that flavor. It's relatively intact in that cut, but BB #3 is also dead and Colorado only anyways.




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