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Tessub demands that the city institute a debt remission. He promises that, if the city complies, it will experience great prosperity and military success. If it fails to comply, drastic judgment awaits it. In a similar manner the Judean chronicler attributed the destruction and exile of the Kingdom of Judah to her failure to observe Yahweh's sabbatical year remissions (2 Chronicles 36:17-21; cf. Leviticus 26).
That man he who ran away from his own city has arrived in another country. When he became discontented, he began to plot evil in return against his new city. And the city's gods have made him accursed.
I will tell of Tessub, the great lord of Kummi. I will praise the young woman Allani at the Bolts of the Netherworld. In addition to them I will speak of the young woman Ishara, a skilled goddess, famous for her wisdom.
Tessub and Suwaliyat (also known as Tasmisu)46 went down to the Dark Netherworld, and Allani girded herself (for work). She goes back and forth in front of Tessub, and Allani made a fine feast at the Bolts of the Netherworld.
The Queen of Nineveh went there to wash herself. She washed herself. She anointed herself with fine perfumed oil. She adorned herself. And qualities which arouse love ran after her like puppies.
And Hedammu He raised his head from the watery deep. He spied Sauska. Sauska held up her naked members before Hedammu.
Ubelluri spoke to Ea, "When they built heaven and earth upon me, I was aware of nothing. And when they came and cut heaven and earth apart with a copper cutting tool, I was even unaware of that. But now something makes my right shoulder hurt, and I don't know who this god is.
When Ea heard those words, he went around Ubelluri's right shoulder, and there the Basalt stood on Ubelluri's right shoulder like a shaft.
Ea spoke to the Primeval Gods, "Hear my words, Ο Primeval Gods, who know the primeval words. Open again the old,fatherly, grandfatherly storehouses. Let them bring forth the seal of the primeval fathers and with it reseal them.
Let them bring forth the primeval copper cutting tool with which they cut apart heaven and earth. We will cut off Ullikummi, the Basalt, under his feet, him whom Kumarbi raised against the gods as a supplanter of Tessub
Baal's mountain was biblical Zaphon, known in Ugaritic as Sapan, in Hittite and Hurrian as Mount Hazzi, in Akkadian as Ba'lisapuna, in Greek and Latin as Casius (< Kasios), and in modern Arabic as Jebel 'el-Aqra', which stands at a height of 5,660 ft. about 25 miles north of Ras Shamra and 2.5 miles from the coast. Sapan was the site of both Baal's palace and his divine battle with Yamm/Lotan and (later) Mot . Similarly the Hurrian-Hittite myth of Ullikumi places the conflict between the storm-god and Ullikumi at Mount Hazzi , and Zeus similarly fights Typhon and other monsters on Mount Casius
Biblical allusions to the mythological battle between Yahweh and dragon appear in Psalm 74:13; 89:9-10; Isaiah 27:1 51:9-10; Revelation 12:7-9, though none of them locate the conflict on a mountain. Familiarity with Zaphon as Baal's abode is evident in the toponym Baal-Zephon in Exodus 14:1, 9, Numbers 33:7.
here are numerous references in the OT to Zaphon as Yahweh's holy mountain, resulting through an identification between Yahweh and Baal. Since Yahweh also merges with El in Israelite religion, the biblical texts conflate Zaphon with El's abode as well as the "mountain of assembly" (where the "divine council" meets). Helal, son of Shahar (the twin brother of Shalam, the god of sunset), declares in Isaiah 14:13-14: "I will sit on the Mount of Assembly in the recesses of Zaphon. I will climb to the top of thunderclouds, I will rival the Most High.
Yahweh is great and supremely to be praised, in the city of our God, the holy mountain (hr-qdsw), beautiful where it rises, joy of the whole world; Mount Zion, in the recesses of Zaphon (yrkty zpn), the city of the great king; here among her palaces, God proved to be her fortress." (Psalm 48:1-3)
After (the departure) of the Sun God of the Sky Tessub formed a clever plan in his mind. Tessub and Tasmisu joined hands and went out of the kuntarra-shrines and the temple. Sauska too came from the sky looking formidable.
Sauska said to herself, "Where are my two brothers running to?" Bo1d1y(?) Sauska approached. She came up to her brothers. Then they all joined hands and went up Mount Hazzi.
(Tessub), the King of Kummiya, set his eye. He set his eye upon the dreadful Basalt. He beheld the dreadful Basalt, and because of anger his appearance changed. Tessub sat down on the ground, and his tears flowed like streams. Tearfully Tessub said, "Who can [any longer] behold the struggle of such a one? Who go on fighting? Who can behold the terrors of such a one any longer?"
Baal's mountain was biblical Zaphon, known in Ugaritic as Sapan, in Hittite and Hurrian as Mount Hazzi, in Akkadian as Ba'lisapuna, in Greek and Latin as Casius (< Kasios), and in modern Arabic as Jebel 'el-Aqra'
originally posted by: Kantzveldt
To understand the basic principles involved then The Song of Release is critical, the basic issue is debt slavery were the City of Ebla holds in bondage the followers of Tessub, thus undermining his religious position, the God relates directly with his followers in claiming to be cold, destitute, hungry and oppressed, demands their release and when this is refused by an eloquent Minsiter of the City on the grounds that it really isn't Tessub that is being oppressed he destroys the City through the agency of the King of Nineveh, thus setting in motion a historic resentment that gives rise to the New World Order, this precedent was something the Jews were aware of and looked to observe the principle within their own society
He suggests that, in fact, such loans were made as a means of securing long-term indentured servitude, a relationship more profitable to the creditor than outright slavery because contractual clauses protected the creditor from the flight, disappearance or death of the pledge
At Alalah the king used this means to obtain the services of individuals, families and even a village. The type of service provided, when it is specified, indudes weavers, fowlers and kutturu-men. Therefore at Alalah Level VII legal con tracts emphasize the acquisition of skilled labor to staff the palace workshops, while the administrative ration texts describe a dependent workforce that consists primarily of unskilled agricultural labor
Loan for labor (and purchase of slaves) seems to have provided the king with a method of acquiring skilled craftsmen when he was not able to requisition such labor through his authority as head of state. The fact that the king of Alalah Level VII was not able to enforce the contribution of skilled labor to the palace without a legal contract may reflect his own subordinate position within the kingdom of Yamhad, and lack of the prerogatives or the power of the king of Yarnhad or earlier king of Mari
Strangely enough they make games of hazard a serious occupation even when sober, and so venturesome are they about gaining or losing, that, when every other resource has failed, on the last and final throw they stake the freedom of their own persons. The loser goes into voluntary slavery; though the younger and stronger, he suffers himself to be bound and sold.
References to such Habiru bands were found in many different parts of the Middle East, making it clear that they did not constitute a tribe or nation but rather a social class, one that was generally viewed by the scribes who mentioned them with a mixture of fear and contempt.
a much-feared demon possessing horns and tail(s). In Ugaritic he is referred to as Hby bcl qrnm w-dnb "Haby, possessor of two horns and a tail". In Eblaite his name is reduplicated to Habhaby and he is characterized by a pair of horns of the moon and tail(s) of the sun. Then he appears twice in the O. T.: Isaiah (26: 20) warns us to take cover in the innermost chamber until Haby departs; Habakkuk 3: 4 mentions the demon as hebyon (with the suffix -on added to haby) and preserves a reference to his horns. The fact that our iconography of Satan (or The Devil) to this day calls for horns and tail reflects how deep-seated Haby is in our own past.
"I have bound Habhaby. I have bound his tongue. I have found the barrier of his teeth. I have bound you on a black stone by the double doors and struck the Sea (tihamatim) with a reed.
I have bound you by seven mighty contraptions. I have bound you by the zidanu and amana. I have bound you by the tails of the Sun and by the horns of the Moon. Seven youths and seven maidens are exalted, and [...] the Star (kabkabu). The bricklayer will lay the bricks by the double doors of Ellil, father of the gods and the Star has established him as representative to Ellil, father of the gods. Ellil, the father of the gods performs the magic.
Spell of the Star. [...] I have bound you on Zazaum, O no-good one. [...] O Sun-god! May you lay the bricks and build the house of Ellil the father of the gods. [...] The Star is appointed as the emissary to Ellil the father of the gods. [...] The earth has confined the serpent (bashanu); O serpent in the sea (ba-tihamat)! [...] So says the magician Dagama [to the serpent]: 'I have smitten thee'. [...] May Hadd fetch the dazzling stone and the triple-garment for the Star [who was appointed to induce Ellil to perform the magic]".
Ebla version of serpent conflict
At his right hand marched the Gods, also Hebab was among them