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The texts relating these rituals are found in the Hittite archives dating some 1000 years after our structure, but there is no doubt that they refer to the same religious tradition. It is from these texts that we know the ancient name was âbi.
While the structure,in its simplest form, is a deep circular shaft going back to the early third, and possibly the fourth millennium,it was at about 2300 B.C. that it came to be covered by a corbelled vault and expanded by means of an antechamber.
This was also the time when the Palace of Tupkish was built, in a position immediately adjacent to the underground structure
The stone structure consists of two chambers: the circular one, constructed first, and the square chamber added later to the circular portion by removing a part of the stone wall on the western side of the circle. The resulting structure has a keyhole shape.
Presumably the perimeter of the circle, which was later removed for the construction of the square, contained the original stair since it is not present in the excavated portion of the circular structure.
The square portion did have a preserved entrance through a very narrow doorway and steep stone steps.
The final structure, including both the circle and the square, is over 7.5 meters in length near the top of the walls as preserved. The width of the circular chamber is about 4 meters in diameter near the top.
At this point the excavated depth of the circle is almost 6 meters, but the base of the stones has not yet been reached.
In these Hurrian-Hittite texts the netherworld deities themselves are called forth, never the spirits of the dead. This indicates that the rituals are not necromantic in nature. The rituals are centered on the passage of the deities of the Underworld for purposes of purification and the giving of offerings.
The shaft with its steep, narrow entrance facing the setting sun was blocked when we first discovered it.
The time of day for these rituals is either the time of the setting sun or at night The Urkesh example is monumental, while many others are small, ephemeral pits. It may well have been that the Urkesh shaft was rare even in third millennium
The position of the shaft within the city of Urkesh is an important consideration. We know that it predated the construction of the palace since the southern exterior wall of the formal wing is stepped back to accommodate it.
The ritual texts connected with pits sometimes do speak of the participation of the king and queen and one explicitly states that after participating in the rituals the king is to proceed directly back to the palace.
In the cuneiform texts, it seems that there are a number of attributes given to Goddess Išhara. In the prelude of Kumarbi Mythos and a ritual of it is mentioned that God Enlil and Goddess Ab-andu was the parent of Goddess Išhara.
It is generally agreed that the parent of Išhara was “the mighty and immortal gods” or the gods belonged to the “Ancient Gods” generation.
In this context, it was invoked Ancient Gods and Underground ones banished to the Underground by the Storm god , in order to purify the house and the town from all evil things
I was just thinking to say that this is what keeps me here. One or two times a week gems pop up. I haven't read about this site yet, thanks Kantz. After I get into it, I will share my insights. Thanx again!
originally posted by: Butterfinger
This is the content that brought me to ATS!
. The resulting structure has a keyhole shape.
the pit was gradually filled over time with ritual pit offerings involving puppies and piglets and small items...
Kumarbi thinks out wise thoughts in his mind. He nurses the thought of creating misfortune and an evil being. he plots evil against the Storm-god. He nurses the thought of raising up a rival for the Storm-god. Kumarbi thinks out wise thoughts in his mind and strings them together like beads. When Kumarbi had thought out the wise thoughts in his mind, he instantly rose from his seat. He took his staff in his hand, put swift shoes on his feet. He set forth from Urkis, his city
When night[...; when night] stood in the [...] vigil, stone moved stone.[...], they attended her when she gave birth [...] the Rock [...] forth [...and] Kumarbi's son made his appearance.
originally posted by: Kantzveldt
The term abi or api is the same as the stem of the Sumerian Ap-su or Akkadian Ab-zu, meaning deep and indeed the original pit was dug very deep,