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originally posted by: odzeandennz
the US and China and Japan are soon to follow in the alternative energy race.
Commissioned in 1963, Ffestiniog Power Station was the UK's first major pumped storage power facility. Although of an older generation to those at Dinorwig, Ffestiniog's four generating units are still capable of achieving a combined output of 360MW of electricity - enough to supply the entire power needs of North Wales for several hours.
When it was fully commissioned in 1984, Dinorwig Power Station was regarded as one of the world's most imaginative engineering and environmental project.
. . .
Dinorwig's reversible pump/turbines are capable of reaching maximum generation in less than 16 seconds. Using off-peak electricity the six units are reversed as pumps to transport water from the lower reservoir, back to Marchlyn Mawr.
. . .
Pump storage generation offers a critical back-up facility during periods of excessive demand on the national grid system.
Britain has four pumped storage facilities, which can store 30 GWh be-
tween them (table 26.4, figure 26.6). They are typically used to store excess
electricity at night, then return it during the day, especially at moments of
peak demand – a profitable business, as figure 26.5 shows. The Dinorwig
power station – an astonishing cathedral inside a mountain in Snowdonia
– also plays an insurance role: it has enough oomph to restart the national
grid in the event of a major failure. Dinorwig can switch on, from 0 to
1.3 GW power, in 12 seconds.
Dinorwig is the Queen of the four facilities. Let’s review her vital statis-
tics. The total energy that can be stored in Dinorwig is about 9 GWh. Its
upper lake is about 500 m above the lower, and the working volume of 7
million m3 flows at a maximum rate of 390 m3/s, allowing power delivery
at 1.7 GW for 5 hours. The efficiency of this storage system is 75%.
If all four pumped storage stations are switched on simultaneously,
they can produce a power of 2.8 GW. They can switch on extremely fast,
coping with any slew rate that demand-fluctuations or wind-fluctuations
could come up with. However the capacity of 2.8 GW is not enough to
replace 10 GW or 33 GW of wind power if it suddenly went missing. Nor
is the total energy stored (30 GWh) anywhere near the 1200 GWh we are
interested in storing in order to make it through a big lull.
Pumped storage is a well proven technology in use in Scotland and across the world. The Cruachan station on Loch Awe became fully operational in 1967 and was the first reversible pump storage hydro system to be built in the world. Cruachan generated 885 GWh of electricity in 2008
The Foyers hydro electric scheme was originally built by the british Aluminium Company in 1896 to power an aluminium smelter and was the first large-scale commercial hydro-electric scheme in the UK. It was redeveloped to focus on pumped-storage in 1969.
originally posted by: quercusrex
a reply to: Bedlam
I always looked at coal as the ultimate in solar energy storage mechanisms. Big chunks of solar power all preserved neatly.
Just power up a gas-powered turbine and *bam* you have megawatts in seconds.
originally posted by: SLAYER69
From what I've read, Fusion power will hopefully be a reality in our lifetime...
Nuclear fusion nears efficiency break-even
Lockheed says makes breakthrough on Fusion Energy project