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Room Temperature Quantum Entanglement in Semiconductor

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posted on Apr, 22 2016 @ 04:47 PM
A working 5 qubit quantum computer!

The new device builds on the considerable work over the last two decades on trapped ion quantum computers. It consists of five ytterbium ions lined up and trapped in an electromagnetic field. The electronic state of each ion can be controlled by zapping it with a laser. This allows each ion to store a bit of quantum information.

Because they are charged, the ions exert a force on each other, and this causes them to vibrate at frequencies that can be precisely controlled and manipulated. These vibrations are quantum in nature and allow the ions to become entangled. In this way, the quantum bits they hold can interact.

By controlling these interactions, physicists can carry out quantum logic operations.

Source: MIT's TechnologyReview Long-Awaited Promise of a Programmable Quantum Computer

The article does not even mention "super cooled" or "K" or anything involving temperature. The diagram only shows a splitter for the five ions being caught in intersecting Raman beams. Looking up "Raman spectroscopy" did not reveal much. Anyway, the qubits are fully entangled with each other in a "star network topology" around the outside and with each other (the diagram is a pentagram with a star inside it!).

After entanglement, they used a laser to manipulate a qubit as they wanted. They put it through a couple quantum computing algorithms and it works. There idea is since this is a self contained module they can hook up multiple modules to make longer qubits computers!

[ETA: the MIT TechnologyReview limits the number of times you can view their articles before asking you to sign up. I think I hit my six free visits in a one month period. Thank Jabba it is almost May! I suppose I could stop being a ninnie and just pick up a copy at the local bookstore]
edit on 22-4-2016 by TEOTWAWKIAIFF because: warning label

posted on Apr, 22 2016 @ 04:55 PM

This is strange... The first time I heard the term "Quantum entanglement" was earlier today on a radio program and they were talking about how birds know when and where to migrate to... Something about magnetism in their brains... Apparently, it's been a theory for a while. This is from 2011

posted on Apr, 22 2016 @ 06:19 PM
a reply to: Benevolent Heretic

You know what? When you start delving into the quantum world the synchronicities seem to pile up! I was reading about graphene and boom, they created a new way of generating electricity using quantum spin. I was reading about nuclear fusion and bam, there was a story about quantum entanglement in superconductor magnets and the breakthrough in that area!

It seems Universe wants me to pay attention!

posted on Apr, 27 2016 @ 05:04 PM
This will take some time to explain...

First, Wikipedia articles, Time-bin encoding
and, Frequesncy comb

Time-bin encoding is a technique used... to encode a qubit of information on a photon.
The photon... is guided through one of two paths... (o)ne of the two paths is longer than the other. The difference in path length must be longer than the coherence length of the photon to make sure the path taken can be unambiguously distinguished.
If the photon has a non-zero probability to take either path, then it is in a coherent superposition of the two states.

A research team used time-bin encoding on two short laser pulses (creating the entangled qubit). Then,

To generate multiple frequencies, [researchers] sent the pulses through a tiny ring, called a microring resonator. The resonator generates photon pairs on a series of discrete frequencies, using spontaneous form-wave mixing, thus creating a frequency comb.

The interferometer the team used has one long arm and one short arm, and when a single photon comes out of the system, it is in a superposition of time states, as if it traveled through both the long arm and the short arm simultaneously. [i.e, time-bin encoded]
[The researchers] are the first to create photons with multiple frequencies using the same chip. This feature can enable multiplexed and multi-channel quantum communications and increased quantum computation information capacity.

Kues notes that the chip could improve quantum key distribution, a process that lets two parties share a secret key to encrypt messages with theoretically unbreakable security. It could also serve as a component of a future quantum computer.
The team is currently working to integrate the lasers, interferometer, and microring resonator of the device into a standard photonic chip, to build logic gates for quantum state manipulation, and to increase the degree of entanglement, which is a measure of the strength of the link between particles.

Source: - Researchers create a first frequency comb of time-bin entangled qubits

A frequency comb is needed to connect radio signals with the optical chips. If this is done to a standard optical chip there is your "room temperature" quantum computer (or at least the quantum part). This would make a hybrid chip that has a quantum algorithm section and normal, every-day, binary section. You do normal, non-heavy lifting on the optical and for the quantum algorithms you use the other!

Hum, radio signals, like terahertz? Could this be the marriage of both terahertz and hybrid quantum computing?

posted on Apr, 28 2016 @ 05:21 AM
Just wanted to say keep posting.

Truth is, most of this has at least been speculated about for a long time but advances in materials tech are now making it all a reality.

If we had stone age , bronze age, Iron Age etc the 21st century will almost certainly be the Metamaterial age (for some people as not everyone will be at the party) -

Lets hope the transition isn't as tumultuous as it was when segments of humanity went from Bronze to Iron!

edit on 28-4-2016 by Jukiodone because: (no reason given)

posted on Apr, 29 2016 @ 04:46 PM

Eliot Kapit, an assistant professor of physics at Tulane University in New Orleans, has proposed a different approach to quantum error correction. His method takes advantage of a recently discovered unexpected benefit of quantum noise: when carefully tuned, quantum noise can actually protect qubits against unwanted noise. Rather than actively measuring the system, the new method passively and autonomously suppresses and corrects errors, using relatively simple devices and relatively little computing power.
In the absence of any errors, there are a pair of oscillating photon configurations that are the 'good' logical states of the device, and they oscillate at a fixed frequency based on the circuit parameters," Kapit explained...

When a photon randomly escapes from the circuit, the oscillation is broken, at which point a second, passive error correction circuit kicks in and quickly inserts two photons, one which restores the lost photon and reconstructs the oscillating logical state, and the other is dumped to a lossy circuit element and quickly leaks back out of the system. The combination of careful tuning of the resonant frequencies of the circuit and adding photons two at a time to correct losses ensures that the passive error correction circuit can operate continuously but won't do anything to the two good qubits unless their oscillation has been broken by a photon loss.

Source: - Autonomous quantum error correction method greatly increases qubit coherence times

There is a diagram that makes more sense than the words! So an efficient qubit error detector that does not have to actively monitor and correct decoherence is a great step forward!

posted on May, 1 2016 @ 06:54 PM
Quantum computers can break any encryption except quantum encryption.

This can be dangerous.

posted on May, 2 2016 @ 03:31 PM

Photo from Albany Daily Star article

MIT research group claims that they developed a prototype of a Quantum computers with five atoms in an ion trap.

Source: Albany Daily Star - MIT Scientist developed a scalable Quantum computers – Las Vegas Tech Week

So they are at Las Vegas with a functioning prototype (the picture). The reason they were in LV at Tech Week?

Much of the world’s digital data is currently protected by public key cryptography, an encryption method that relies on a code based partly in factoring large numbers. Computers have traditionally struggled to do the calculations based on factoring, so data transferred in this way remains secure...
Chuang and his collaborators found that the five-atom quantum computer successfully calculated the factors of 15. Previously, experts thought such a calculation would require at least 12 qubits to complete. Chuang says the five-ion model can be scaled up to factor much bigger numbers as long as the ion trap can hold its qubits in place. The team published its results in this week’s issue of Science.

Though a functional quantum computer of the necessary size to crack RSA encryption is still far off in the future, the threat that such a computer poses still resonates among digital security experts. In January, the U.S. National Security Agency posted a FAQ on the risks.
Chuang sees his experiment as an opportunity to point out vulnerabilities and push security experts to find even more secure solutions for the next generation

So, there you go. IT Security is a concern before it is out the gate. From an idea, to a research topic, to demo model--and look, no cryo anywhere to be seen!

edit on 2-5-2016 by TEOTWAWKIAIFF because: clarity

posted on May, 2 2016 @ 04:16 PM
This is the most unscathed, real ,literally
paranormal, science that has been known
to exist for a while now, & has NOT
been understood, almost at all, exactly as long.

posted on May, 4 2016 @ 04:53 PM
IBM Research is allowing anybody (caveats of course) to access their 5 qubit quantum computer through a cloud based service.

Accessing the computer, which is housed in a research lab in Yorktown Heights, New York, is relatively simple for anyone with basic understanding of computer programming. IBM offers a tutorial on how to use the service.

Source: CNET - Now you, too, can try out IBM's quantum computer

My computational algebra is pretty rusty but giving a whirl to Shor's algorithm would be cool! I don't know if I have the time to do this but I may go take a look this weekend to see what knowledge level you need.

posted on May, 13 2016 @ 01:59 PM
Even a 2-qubit quantum computer is showing usefulness! So the IBM 5-qubit computer that you can access via the cloud should also confirm larger quantum algorithms. The original thought was that it would take 12-qubits to completely factor the number "15" but the MIT team showed it can be done in 5. Anyway this is a more detailed account than the one I saw a couple of days ago and have to share.

Using a simple quantum circuit, constructed on a 2-qubit photonics quantum processor, the researchers were able to outperform classical computers in certain highly specialised problems.

"An exciting outcome of our work is that we may have found a new example of quantum walk physics that we can observe with a primitive quantum computer, that otherwise a classical computer could not see," said Jonathan Matthews of the Centre for Quantum Photonics.

Source: - Primitive quantum computers are already outperforming current machines

A quantum walk is a detailing of all possible paths a particle can take (think Feynman diagram). It also a method of creating truly random numbers. Although I think they are still using super cooled qubits it is change in mindset from "normal" computer science to the "quantum" that I find interesting. And that thinking will have to apply to room temperature quantum computers.

posted on May, 18 2016 @ 12:19 PM
This is not directly about quantum computing but can have a drastic impact upon it. And it is room temperature.

The team at MIT, led by Jagadeesh Moodera of the Department of Physics and postdoc Ferhat Katmis, was able to bond together several molecular layers of a topological insulator material called bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) with an ultrathin layer of a magnetic material, europium sulfide (EuS). The resulting bilayer material retains all the exotic electronic properties of a TI and the full magnetization capabilities of the EuS.

But the big surprise was the stability of that effect. While EuS itself is known to retain its ability to hold a magnetic state only at extremely low temperatures, just 17 degrees above absolute zero (17 Kelvin), the combined material keeps those characteristics all the way up to ordinary room temperature.
The effect, which the researchers call proximity-induced magnetism, could also enable a new variety of “spintronic” devices based on a property of electrons called spin, rather than on their electrical charge. It might also provide the first practical way of producing a kind of particle called Majorana fermions, predicted by physicists but not yet observed convincingly. That in turn could help in the development of quantum computers, they say.

Source: MIT news, May 9, 2016 - Researchers find unexpected magnetic effect

The by-line reads Combining two thin-film materials yields surprising room-temperature magnetism. Researchers are finding something similar with graphene--that layering the material with an insulator causes some new and unforseen behavior. It is tricky to get the two to line up to exhibit this property but the fact it happens is even mind blowing to the researchers themselves! Layering 2D materials is the wave of the future.

Also keeps from having to have cryogenic liquid gasses to keep everything cool.

posted on Jun, 2 2016 @ 06:54 PM

Researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the University of Strathclyde, UK, have become the first to test in orbit technology for satellite-based quantum network nodes.

They have put a compact device carrying components used in quantum communication and computing into orbit. And it works: the team report first data in a paper published 31 May 2016 in the journal Physical Review Applied.
The group's first device is a technology pathfinder. It takes photons from a BluRay laser and splits them into two, then measures the pair's properties, all on board the satellite. To do this it contains a laser diode, crystals, mirrors and photon detectors carefully aligned inside an aluminum block. This sits on top of a 10 centimetres by 10 centimetres printed circuit board packed with control electronics.
The team are working with standard "CubeSat" nanosatellites, which can get relatively cheap rides into space as rocket ballast. Ultimately, completing a global network would mean having a fleet of satellites in orbit and an array of ground stations.

Source:, June 2, 2016 - Quantum satellite device tests technology for global quantum network

Wow that is cool! Nanosatellites and Blu-ray lasers! The article states they had one completed before and the rocket blew up. They found the wreckage washed up on a beach and their component still worked. Again, not exactly the desktop, I can log in, test Shor's algorithm, news but I think is way cool over the other "quantum computing" news I've seen lately.

A quantum network... in space!!

posted on Jun, 9 2016 @ 12:50 PM
a reply to: John_Rodger_Cornman

Not only will quantum computers be able to crack RSA encryption but they will also be able to generate quantum keys for truly uncrackable encryption. Heck, if somebody figures out a way to factor prime numbers then RSA is out the window.

a reply to: UnderKingsPeak

They are getting closer to creating a general purpose quantum computer. The first steps are being taken and understanding will be growing in leaps and bounds. I do not necessarily think you need a 64-qbit machine on your desk. The IBM 5-qbit cloud-accessible computer is demonstrating some pretty cool stuff (favorite example is using 5-qbits to factor numbers that they thought would take 12-qbits to do). As the science grows the actual computational algebra/algorithm descriptions for quantum computers needs to be written. I think that is why IBM has opened up their machine to the wider audience.

edit on 9-6-2016 by TEOTWAWKIAIFF because: grammar nazi

posted on Jun, 9 2016 @ 01:27 PM
Here is some news about two different approaches towards a quantum computer being combined in one solid-state quantum computer (again, at room temperature). It does get a bit technical...

[T]he researchers with this new effort have built an actual machine that is based on two of the strongest approaches to building a quantum computer.

The first approach is based on the gate model, where qubits are linked together to form primitive circuits that together form quantum logic gates. In such an arrangement, each logic gate is capable of performing one specific type of operation. Thus, to make use of such a computer, each of the logic gates must be programmed ahead of time to carry out certain tasks.

With the second approach the qubits do not interact, instead they are kept at a ground state where they are then caused to evolve into a system capable of solving a particular problem. The result is known as an adiabatic machine.
[T]o gain the positive attributes of both approaches by creating a machine where they started with a standard quantum computer and then used it to simulate an adiabatic machine. It uses 9 qubits and has over 1,000 logic gates and allows for communication between qubits to be turned on and off at will. The end result, the team reports, is one that unlike an adiabatic machine, is able to tackle traditionally difficult computing problems

Source:, June 9, 2016 - Google combines two main quantum computing ideas in one computer

Wikipedia Adiabatic link

So they have used general, q-bit logic gates and programmed them to simulate an adiabatic quantum computer that can allow/disallow communication between the q-bits (entanglement). That is a little mind bending as it seem like recursion (which always brings its own "butterflies in the stomach" with it). By keeping the gates from becoming entangled they should be able to demonstrate what the difference is between entangled/un-entangled q-bit algorithms are thus knowing which one to use for purpose. That is a pretty cool trick! There is another story on being able to figure out atom by atom the state on crystal silicone (I think) which means they know where/how to look for electrons for quantum experiments.

Hey, there is another story out there! A two-fer.

Similar to a breadboard in electrical engineering
... A quantum box is an artificially produced structure that restricts a particle's movements, so that it can move in only two dimensions...

The research team refined an established method in which atoms are repositioned one after the other using scanning tunneling microscopy, allowing the creation of clearly defined quantum systems. Through the targeted relocating of xenon atoms in quantum boxes, the team succeeded in generating different patterns that correspond to a wide range of quantum states.

Source: Science Daily, June 9, 2016 - Controlling quantum states atom by atom

Well there you go. A breadboard is a solder-less connection circuit creator. You place your chips on the breadboard and use wires to connect pathways between chips. Looks kind of like a cribbage board but with more holes. All you need are some toggle switches and power and you can demonstrate a circuit's path through logic gates--a computer. We had to build an 8-bit "slice-wise" computer using CMOS chips back in college. Now it looks like they can do the same with quantum boxes. That means rapid prototyping of quantum circuits. Although since they are using Xenon then it is probably at liquid helium temperatures but hey, you have to start somewhere!

edit on 9-6-2016 by TEOTWAWKIAIFF because: grammar nazi

edit on 9-6-2016 by TEOTWAWKIAIFF because: even more grammar nazi

posted on Jun, 16 2016 @ 02:02 PM
Ahhhh! Finally found some details but not sure if this article is describing the MIT quantum computer but it looks the same to me (photo at site).

Handful of qubits. This arrangement of gold electrodes on a chip can hold up to twelve magnesium ions 40 micrometers above its surface while laser light cools them, enabling the ions to functions as qubits. Error-correction techniques allowing qubits to recover from unwanted disturbances.

Source:, June 10, 2016 - Focus: Landmarks—Correcting Quantum Computer Errors

The article explains the evolution of error correcting schemes from Shor's use of three groups of three qbits to perform error correction to the next scheme which removed 2 qbits to perform the same. As stated, they are using 12 qbits with error correction to achieve 5 qbits total. The lasers slows the ions down effectively cooling them allowing them to become entangled. That is pretty... cool (bad pun, I know)! And it is nice to finally have the details how they created a 5-qbit quantum computer at room temperature.

edit on 16-6-2016 by TEOTWAWKIAIFF because: grammar nazi

posted on Jun, 27 2016 @ 11:57 AM
A team at Penn State University have created a 3-d array of q-bits and demonstrated a method of controlling the interactions.

To corral their quantum atoms into an orderly 3-D pattern for their experiments, the team constructed a lattice made by beams of light to trap and hold the atoms in a cubic arrangement of five stacked planes -- like a sandwich made with five slices of bread -- each with room for 25 equally spaced atoms. The arrangement forms a cube with an orderly pattern of individual locations for 125 atoms. The scientists filled some of the possible locations with qubits consisting of neutral cesium atoms -- those without a positive or a negative charge.

Weiss and his team then use another kind of light tool -- crossed beams of laser light -- to target individual atoms in the lattice. The focus of these two laser beams, called "addressing" beams, on a targeted atom shifts some of that atom's energy levels by about twice as much as it does for those of any of the other atoms in the array, including those that were in the path of one of the addressing beams on its way to the target. When the scientists then bathe the whole array with a uniform wash of microwaves, the state of the atom with the shifted energy levels is changed, while the states of all the other atoms are not.

Source: Penn State University (, June 25, 2016 - New, better way to build circuits for world's first useful quantum computers

They demonstrated their method of control by spelling out "PSU" while the q-bits were entangled (photos at source). There was no mention of 'super cooled' so it sounds like they too, like the MIT device, are using lasers to cool the q-bits. Not sure why 5 x 25 q-bits (q-bits themselves are in a 5x5 array) probably something to do with error correction. Nice to see this being taken 3D too. Only makes sense when dealing with individual ions and the addressing lasers you do not want to flying off far left to far right to shift bits just go up or down!

Great news on a new and different technique. 125 q-bits, demonstrated. Another step forward!

posted on Jun, 28 2016 @ 04:03 PM
Cool! I pipped by two days!

We have set more qubits into different, precise quantum superpositions at the same time than in any previous experimental system," Weiss said. The scientists also designed their system to be very insensitive to the exact details of the alignments or the power of those light beams they use—which Weiss said is a good thing because "you don't want to be dependent upon exactly what the intensity of the light is or exactly what the alignment is."
"We changed the quantum superposition of the PSU atoms to be different from the quantum superposition of the other atoms in the array," Weiss said. "We have a pretty high-fidelity system. We can do targeted selections with a reliability of about 99.7%, and we have a plan for making that more like 99.99%."

Source:, June 27, 201 - New, better way to build circuits for world's first useful quantum computers

But the people at do get to talk to the researchers so it is still a good read for those interested! And the details provided by Dr. Weiss said their technique can be used in 1-D and 2-D systems as well. On top of that, it will work with any type of ion/atom.

Is this universal quantum computer design winner? It matters not, it is just cool science on the path to quantum computing.

posted on Jul, 5 2016 @ 12:34 PM
a reply to: John_Rodger_Cornman

Not to fear! NIST has been thinking about this and how to address it for a while. So they have created true random number devices that utilize quantum effects. They are unbreakable. Here is blurb from the article.

Until recently, simple and low-cost quantum random number generators did not exist, preventing quantum physics from becoming the dominant source of randomness," the white paper states. "However, a number of manufacturers have now been able to address this challenge, leveraging quantum effects in a variety of ways to deliver the highest quality randomness, at high rates and at competitive costs."

Source: TechRepublic, July 5, 2016 - Quantum physics meets IT security.

So the NIST's whitepaper is from April and said,

NIST is taking the following steps to initiate a standardization effort in post-quantum cryptography. NIST plans to specify preliminary evaluation criteria for quantum-resistant public key cryptography standards. The criteria will include security and performance requirements. The draft criteria will be released for public comments in 2016 and hopefully finalized by the end of the year.

(same source)

So there are already a couple companies using the quantum-random number generators (see article for names) and offering encryption services. The NIST would make quantum key encryption standards for public use.

Still not a general use quantum computer but this is a huge step in the right direction.

posted on Jul, 21 2016 @ 12:52 PM
More small steps being taking (they are calling this area of research, "quantum information processing"). Both stories concern error correction and detection of q-bits.

The team accomplished it, in part, by finding a less complicated way to encode and correct the information. The Yale researchers devised a microwave cavity in which they created an even number of photons in a quantum state that stores the qubit. Rather than disturbing the photons by measuring them—or even counting them—the researchers simply determined whether there were an odd or even number of photons. The process relied on a kind of symmetry, via a technique the team developed previously.

"If a photon is lost, there will now be an odd number," said co-lead author Nissim Ofek, a Yale postdoctoral associate. "We can measure the parity, and thus detect error events without perturbing or learning what the encoded quantum bit's value actually is.", July 20, 2016 - New device lengthens the life of quantum information.

The article states that this method extends the life of their photon q-bits by 3 times. The process belongs to quantum information process and is known as Quantum Error Correction (QEC).

And this came out today.

A research team from the Quantum Photonics Laboratory at RMIT University and EQuS at the University of Sydney has demonstrated a new technique for quantum tomography—self-guided quantum tomography—which opens future pathways for characterisation of large quantum states and provides robustness against inevitable system noise.
"Self-guided quantum tomography uses a search algorithm to iteratively 'find' the quantum state.", July 21, 2016 - Researchers make leap in measuring quantum states.

The technique can work with any quantum device or method of creating q-bits. By doing this the quantum state does not require further processing (sometime done afterwards to 'validate' that quantum effects were indeed used).

Both are cool ideas! Search the tomography or place in a microwave trap and search the parity. Seems that depending on what the quantum device will be used for determines which method to use. Both steps are needed towards the general quantum computer.

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