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Anyone working for very small businesses: Under federal law, an employer doesn't have to pay the minimum wage to a worker if the company's annual gross sales are less than $500,000 and if it doesn't do any business across state lines, according to Tsedeye Gebreselassie, a staff attorney at the National Employment Law Project.
Teenage trainees: Federal law allows employers to pay $4.25 an hour -- $3 less than the current federal minimum -- to anyone under 20 for the first 90 days of employment, according to the Congressional Research Service.
Maryland, which just increased its state minimum wage to $10.10, now exempts those under 20 for the first 180 days, during which employers are allowed to pay them 15% less than the state minimum.
Federal law also lets employers pay 85% of the federal minimum (or $6.16/hour) to full-time students working in retail or service businesses, in an agricultural occupation, or at an institute of higher education.
They are also allowed to pay just 75% of the minimum wage (or $5.44/hour) to students who are employed part-time as part of a vocational training program at an accredited school.
Other exempt workers: Other groups exempt from federal minimum wage protection include newspaper delivery people, occasional babysitters, employees of small circulation newspapers, those elected to state and local government offices (and their staffs); and anyone who works for some seasonal businesses such as amusement parks and summer camps.