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originally posted by: SLAYER69
Why Did Ancient Europeans Just Disappear 14,500 Years Ago?
Some of Europe's earliest inhabitants mysteriously vanished toward the end of the last ice age and were largely replaced by others, a new genetic analysis finds.
The finds come from an analysis of dozens of ancient fossil remains collected across Europe.
The genetic turnover was likely the result of a rapidly changing climate, which the earlier inhabitants of Europe couldn't adapt to quickly enough, said the study's co-author, Cosimo Posth, an archaeogenetics doctoral candidate at the University of Tübingen in Germany. [Top 10 Mysteries of the First Humans]
Here an interesting little read. After reading it the book Guns, Germs and Steel by Jared Diamond came to mind. Although the replacements didn't have guns and steel they may have had "Germs" from any early form of raising some types of livestock. Run the clock forward to when the Europeans made contact with the New world. Disease wipes out the much larger indigenous Human population. Same thing may have happened several times in our human family tree history, I'm sure this also accounts partially for the disappearance of Neanderthal and Denisovan and possibly others... I feel and have stated this here many times.
If it wasn't the main cause then possibility a large contributing factor.
The Kostenki - Borshevo, Костенки - Борщево region on the Don River
Kostenki is a very important Paleolithic site on the Don River in the Russia. It was a settlement which contained venus figures, dwellings made of mammoth bones, and many flint tools and bone implements. Kostenki / Kostienki is not actually a single site but really an area on the right bank of the Don River in the regions of the villages of Kostenki and Borshevo, consisting of more than twenty site locations, all dating to the Paleolithic.
The floor of the hut-pit was more or less flat and showed outlines of two circles. One of them was larger and had a fireplace in the centre. The smaller circle had two layers of bones. The upper layer consisted mainly of shoulder-blades, hip-bones, and tusks of the mammoth. The lower layer, which was level with the floor of the hut, consisted mainly of tusks which were laid with the points turned inwards towards the centre of the room. They were fairly regularly spaced. This was presumably the supporting framework of the dome shaped roof which collapsed once the hut-pit was empty. The floor of the hut was approximately I metre below the ground and the top of the hut rose 0.8 to 1.0 metres.
These facts led Polykarpovitch to believe that these pit-huts must have been used for sleeping and somehow were kept warm: otherwise they would not have been sufficient protection against the cold. They showed no traces of typical fireplaces; one layer of coal and ash could be found and there was only a little space left around the remains of embers. It could be that the main fire was kept somewhere else and that the inhabitants collected the hot ash and bone 'coal' in rolled up animal skins and took them back to their huts and slept on them. This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that no traces of stone nor large bones could be found inside the huts. Rogatchev also assumed that sick people could have been cured there. But an answer to this suggestion can only be given after further research has been carried out.
Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Thorfinn S. Korneliussen, Martin Sikora, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Andrea Manica, Ida Moltke, Anders Albrechtsen, Amy Ko, Ashot Margaryan, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Ted Goebel, Michael Westaway, David Lambert, Valeri Khartanovich, Jeffrey D. Wall, Philip R. Nigst, Robert A. Foley, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Rasmus Nielsen, Ludovic Orlando, and Eske Willerslev.
The origin of contemporary Europeans remains contentious. We obtain a genome sequence from Kostenki 14 in European Russia dating to 38,700 to 36,200 years ago, one of the oldest fossils of Anatomically Modern Humans from Europe. We find that K14 shares a close ancestry with the 24,000-year-old Mal’ta boy from central Siberia, European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, some contemporary western Siberians, and many Europeans, but not eastern Asians. Additionally, the Kostenki 14 genome shows evidence of shared ancestry with a population basal to all Eurasians that also relates to later European Neolithic farmers. We find that Kostenki 14 contains more Neandertal DNA that is contained in longer tracts than present Europeans. Our findings reveal the timing of divergence of western Eurasians and East Asians to be more than 36,200 years ago and that European genomic structure today dates back to the Upper Paleolithic and derives from a meta-population that at times stretched from Europe to central Asia.
2. K14’s Y-DNA is thought-provoking. It belongs to hg C and is closely related to the C lineage detected in the Mesolithic La Brana sample from Spain (7,000 YBP). When first discovered, the Y-DNA C lineage in La Brana looked aberrant but now it’s clear that it constitutes an ancient West Eurasian lineage linking such distant geographies as Spain and central Russia and subsequently displaced from the European mtDNA pool by younger lineages. Hg C is much better preserved in contemporary East Asia, island Oceania, the Sahul and the New World. Importantly, hg C in K14 and La Brana is closely related to those C lineages in eastern Eurasia (hgs C1, C2 and C5 all carrying F3393/K29 mutation) that are not found in the Americas (only hg C3 with the defining M217 mutation is found there). Hg C is rare in modern Amerindians but this is likely an effect of relatively recent expansion of hg Q. Considering that hg C3* was discovered in South America and C3b is found at low frequencies across North America (peaking in Na-Dene), it’s likely that hg Q formed a wedge that minimized a once more prevalent Amerindian haplogroup. (At the same time, hg C3 found in northeast Asia could not have been a source of Amerindian C3 because much more common East Asian hgs N and O did not make it to America. This suggests that northeast Asian C3 is likely a product of a spillover from the Americas at the end of the Ice Age caused by an expansion of Y-DNA Q-bearing populations within the Americas. This means that 12,000 years ago East Eurasians only had hgs C1, C2, C4 and C5 forming a single clade opposed to America-specific hg C3.)
A team led by Mainz anthropologist Professor Joachim Burger studied bones from the 'Blätterhöhle' cave near Hagen in Germany, where both hunter-gatherers and farmers were buried. "It is commonly assumed that the Central European hunter-gatherers disappeared soon after the arrival of farmers," said Dr. Ruth Bollongino, lead author of the study. "But our study shows that the descendants of Mesolithic Europeans maintained their hunter-gatherer way of life and lived in parallel with the immigrant farmers, for at least 2,000 years. The hunter-gathering lifestyle thus only died out in Central Europe around 5,000 years ago, much later than previously thought."
originally posted by: AgarthaSeed
A super nova was firestones's intial theory as to how those cherts and other samples, were exposed to a hi energy particle flux.
A super nova or atomic bombs are no longer on the table, since the same traces of high energy particle have been found in trees killed at tunguska.
This is the first time I've heard that info. I've researched the Tunguska incident quite extensively.
The answer is far from clear cut, but IMO the Tunguska incident was actually caused by an ET drone that self detonated due to mechanical failures. ( This scenario is also discussed in The Law of One or Ra Material as well.)
Leads me to believe that both Atlantis' collapse and Tunguska were both forms of nuclear detonation, however using what seems to be a more sophisticated type of nuclear energy that emitted less harmful radiation than our current nukes.
Food for thought
originally posted by: zinc12
Wouldn't a rapidly expanding Ice age drive these ancient Europeans southwards to escape it bringing their culture and language southward.
Wouldn't the ancestors of these ancient Europeans have legends and mythology of their ancient homeland in the far north.
Wouldn't the receding of the ice age cause the ancestors of these ancient Europeans to want to return to the mythical homeland of their ancestors.
Wouldn't this Southward northward migration cause peoples in the south and north i.e. Indo-Aryans to have similarity's genetically, linguistically, culturally, religiously, socially and mythologically
originally posted by: zinc12
a reply to: peter vlar
Well the Guanches who inhabited the canary islands were probably ancient Europeans who migrated there due to necessity. Why are white people white anyway, is it because there is less Sun or is it because they mated with other hominids who were white thus inheriting the white gene among other Caucasoid traits.
originally posted by: peter vlar
a reply to: punkinworks10
The first wave out of Africa and into Western Eurasia? If I'm interpreting you correctly, I would agree that this is a likely answer.
The picture on the left[actually below] (source) shows quite nicely that according to current understanding, Africans are nested within Eurasian genetic variation. The modern humans have the following structure:
(Early modern human lineage detected as admixture in the Altai Neandertal, ((Asians, Europeans), Africans)),
and then there are two deeper layers of Eurasian hominins (Neandertal/Denisovans) and the "Mystery hominin" that mixed into Denisovans.
Africans are thus just a leaf of the Eurasian family tree, casting serious doubt -if this model is to be believed- to the position that H. sapiens originated in Africa and are descended from people who never left the continent. It seems much simpler to derive them from an early migration (~200kya?) from Asia which would nicely explain why the continent's first sapiens populations appear tentatively in the northeastern corner, and why they do not replace archaic hominins for most of the 200 thousand years until today. In a reversal of perspective it is not Skhul/Qafzeh that are the "migration that failed", but rather the Omo 1 outlier is.