It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.

Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.

Thank you.

 

Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.

 

The Green Menace: Is Green the New Red?

page: 1
14
<<   2 >>

log in

join
share:

posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 03:18 PM
link   
The Green Menace: Is Green the New Red?


“It’s the new politics of the petro-state...Anything that’s remotely linked with direct action or nonviolent civil disobedience is being described as extremism, which is the new code word of security agencies.”

www.earthisland.org...



In 2006 Vladimir Putin’s government received widespread criticism when it announced it’s intention to place foreign Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) under closer scrutiny amid accusations that such groups were rife with foreign agents. Most vocal in their criticism were the intelligence services themselves who stated that it would be foolish to place agents in such settings and that the Kremlin must be using it as a ruse to prevent abuses against their own people, and in neighbouring states, from seeing the light. While there is probably some truth in that, revelations in recent years have called into question the reasons why so many spies indeed do seem to have infiltrated NGOs, and other groups involved in social activism, including the environmental movement.

Sex, Lies and Spies: The Special Demonstrations Squad



In 2014 the convictions of 29 climate change protestors was overturned following an inquiry that revealed that evidence, that exonerated the group of conspiring to break into Ratcliffe on Soar coal fired power station, was withheld by the Police in order to protect the false identity of one of their officers who had infiltrated the group.

Police Constable Mark Kennedy, it was revealed, had posed as climate change protestor Mark “Flash” Stone and between 2001 and 2009, when he was arrested alongside other protestors, he had infiltrated a network of environmental and social justice protests groups with the purpose of collecting information for the Metropolitan Police’s Special Demonstrations Squad.

The SDS had been founded in 1968 as a means of monitoring the growth in anti-war protests and demonstrations, and over a period of four decades the unit had embedded agents into groups deemed to be a threat to the status quo. PC Mark Jacobs, had infiltrated groups committed to anti-capitalism, animal rights and social justice between 2004 and 2009 in the Cardiff area. One of those groups, the Cardiff Anarchist Network (CAN), described the impact that Jacobs, posing as Marco had on the group;


” He changed the culture of the organisation, encouraging a lot of drinking, gossip and back stabbing, and trivialised and ran down any attempt made by anyone in the group to achieve objectives. He clearly aimed to separate and isolate certain people from the group and from each other, and subtly exaggerated political and personal differences, telling lies to both ‘sides’ to create distrust and ill-feeling. In the four years he was in Cardiff a strong, cohesive and active group had all-but disintegrated. Marco left after anarchist meetings in the city stopped being held.”


Jacobs, like Kennedy, and at least 8 other SDS officers had engaged in sexual relations with those that they were sent to watch.


”If someone was being paid to have sex with me, that gives me a sense of having been violated.”



“It must be a horrifying experience to discover that your partner is not the person they say they are; that they may have been relaying information provided in confidence ‘on the pillow’, to the state; and that the fundamentals of the relationship were lies. Many have described the sense of violation they feel.”

www.greenisthenewred.com...

Gleaning tips from Frederick Forsyth’s Jackal, officers were encouraged to assume the identities of dead children, as Helen Steel discovered when she tried to find her missing boyfriend of two years, Phillip John Barker. The name belonged to a child who had died of leukaemia, and her “boyfriend” Police Sargeant John Dines had been married since 1977. Over a thirty year period it is believed that the names of at least 80 deceased children were used by the SDS by their embedded officers.

By the late 1990s SDS became increasingly interested in the activities of environment and climate change activists, infiltrating the UK Climate Camp and other demonstrations. Following 9/11, the US seems to have adopted a similar tactic, which has intensified following the 2008 banking crisis.




posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 03:21 PM
link   
Anti-fracking = Terrorist?




In February 2010 Tom Jiunta and a small group of residents in northeastern Pennsylvania formed the Gas Drilling Awareness Coalition (GDAC), an environmental organization opposed to hydraulic fracturing in the region. The group sought to appeal to the widest possible audience, and was careful about striking a moderate tone. All members were asked to sign a code of conduct in which they pledged to carry themselves with “professionalism, dignity, and kindness” as they worked to protect the environment and their communities. GDAC’s founders acknowledged that gas drilling had become a divisive issue misrepresented by individuals on both sides and agreed to “seek out the truth.”

www.earthisland.org...

In September 2010 one of their members was sent, in error, an email by James Powers, then director of Pennsylvannia Department of Homeland Security.


The activist was Virginia Cody, a retired Air Force officer. In his email to Cody, Powers wrote: “We want to continue providing this support to the Marcellus Shale Formation natural gas stakeholders while not feeding those groups fomenting dissent against those same companies.”


The group subsequently found out that details of their activities had been featured in bulletins compiled and circulated by a private security firm, The Institute of Terrorism Research and Response (ITRR). These bulletins had a distribution list of up to 800 individuals in local, state and federal law enforcement but also to private intelligence agencies, security directors of energy companies, industry groups and PR firms.


The Marcellus Shale Coalition, an industry lobbying group, was also on the distribution list. In 2010 the coalition signed a $900,000 lobbying contract with Ridge Global, a private security firm founded by Tom Ridge, former head of the Department of Homeland Security under George W. Bush. As part of its energy consulting services Ridge Global offers “advisory support for natural gas and other infrastructure security.” Ridge is just one of many former security officials who now have private consulting services. Others include John Ashcroft, Michael Chertoff, and Richard Clarke.

www.earthisland.org...



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 03:23 PM
link   
Pimps and Whores: A Revolving Door Recruitment Policy




From North America to Europe, the twin spectres of “terrorism” and “extremism” are being disingenuously deployed by an ever more centralised nexus of corporate, state and intelligence power, to suppress widening public opposition to that very process of unaccountable centralisation.

www.theguardian.com...

In 2009, when the case against the Ratcliffe-on-Soar protesters collapsed amid revelations that a serving Police officer was amongst the accused, it emerged that British Police and the Department of Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform had supplied the energy giant E.ON, the company that runs the plant, with information on UK Climate Camp demonstrations. E.ON had also hired the Vericola and Global Open, private security firms, to spy on demonstrators.

Mark Kennedy, the officer at the centre of the Ratcliffe case, since leaving the police has founded a number of consultancies, including Tokra Limited and Black Star High Access for corporate clients, one of which is the US spy firm, the Densus Group targeting anti-capitalist demonstrators, joining a multitude of private intelligence companies founded or staffed by former security services personnel, both international and domestic. Kennedy has stated that he is aware of at least five officers that remain deeply embedded within environmentalist groups for British Police. Kennedy himself is believed to have travelled to at least 23 countries, including the US, during his time as Mark Stone, and he has no doubt established an impressive network of contacts. His skills, and those of his colleagues, are in high demand in a growing market of corporate espionage, particularly his experience watching environmentalists and social activists.


The report by the Center for Corporate Policy (CCP) in Washington DC titled Spooky Business: Corporate Espionage against Nonprofit Organizations draws on a wide range of public record evidence, including lawsuits and journalistic investigations. It paints a disturbing picture of a global corporate espionage programme that is out of control, with possibly as much as one in four activists being private spies.

The report argues that a key precondition for corporate espionage is that the nonprofit in question:
"... impairs or at least threatens a company's assets or image sufficiently."

One of the groups that has been targeted the most, and by a range of different corporations, is Greenpeace. In the 1990s, Greenpeace was tracked by private security firm Beckett Brown International (BBI) on behalf of the world's largest chlorine producer, Dow Chemical, due to the environmental organisation's campaigning against the use of chlorine to manufacture paper and plastics. The spying included:

"... pilfering documents from trash bins, attempting to plant undercover operatives within groups, casing offices, collecting phone records of activists, and penetrating confidential meetings."

Other Greenpeace offices in France and Europe were hacked and spied on by French private intelligence firms at the behest of Électricité de France, the world's largest operator of nuclear power plants, 85% owned by the French government.

Oil companies Shell and BP had also reportedly hired Hackluyt, a private investigative firm with "close links" to MI6, to infiltrate Greenpeace by planting an agent who "posed as a left -wing sympathiser and film maker." His mission was to "betray plans of Greenpeace's activities against oil giants," including gathering "information about the movements of the motor vessel Greenpeace in the north Atlantic."

The CCP report notes that:

"A diverse array of nonprofits have been targeted by espionage, including environmental, anti-war, public interest, consumer, food safety, pesticide reform, nursing home reform, gun control, social justice, animal rights and arms control groups.

Many of the world's largest corporations and their trade associations - including the US Chamber of Commerce, Walmart, Monsanto, Bank of America, Dow Chemical, Kraft, Coca-Cola, Chevron, Burger King, McDonald's, Shell, BP, BAE, Sasol, Brown & Williamson and E.ON - have been linked to espionage or planned espionage against nonprofit organizations, activists and whistleblowers."

Exploring other examples of this activity, the report notes that in Ecuador, after a lawsuit against Texaco triggering a $9.5 billion fine for spilling 350 million gallons of oil around Lago Agrio, the private investigations firm Kroll tried to hire journalist Mary Cuddehe as a "corporate spy" for Chevron, to undermine studies of the environmental health effects of the spill.

Referring to the work of US investigative reporter Jeremy Scahill, the report points out that the notorious defence contractor Blackwater, later renamed XE Services and now Academi, had sought to become "the intel arm" of Monsanto, the agricultural and biotechnology corporation associated with genetically modified foods. Blackwater was paid to "provide operatives to infiltrate activist groups organizing against the multinational biotech firm."

www.theguardian.com...

Following the cases collapse, the SDS was dissolved, though revelations continue to filter out as former agents are identified and their targets come forward, but while the government is, if found out, to at least some extent held accountable, the corporations appear significantly less so, but that private sector security firms are being used by both as a means of controlling awareness to the realities of climate change, and to protect their own interests at the expense of the rest of the planet. In addition, some NGOs such as Hiramine’s Humanitarian International Services Group (HISG) which was praised for it’s work in the aftermath of Katrina, but was founded as a means of carrying out covert operations within North Korea, are funded by corporations, and governments, as a means of furthering a specific agenda.



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 03:24 PM
link   
Following the cases collapse, the SDS was dissolved, though revelations continue to filter out as former agents are identified and their targets come forward, but while the government is, if found out, to at least some extent held accountable, the corporations appear significantly less so, but that private sector security firms are being used by both as a means of controlling awareness to the realities of climate change, and to protect their own interests at the expense of the rest of the planet. In addition, some NGOs such as Hiramine’s Humanitarian International Services Group (HISG) which was praised for it’s work in the aftermath of Katrina, but was founded as a means of carrying out covert operations within North Korea, are funded by corporations, and governments, as a means of furthering a specific agenda.


The FBI's involvement in corporate espionage has been institutionalised through 'InfraGard', "a little-known partnership between private industry, the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security." The partnership involves the participation of "more than 23,000 representatives of private industry," including 350 of the Fortune 500 companies.

But it's not just the FBI. According to the new report, "active-duty CIA operatives are allowed to sell their expertise to the highest bidder", a policy that gives "financial firms and hedge funds access to the nation's top-level intelligence talent. Little is known about the CIA's moonlighting policy, or which corporations have hired current CIA operatives."

The report concludes that, due to an extreme lack of oversight, government effectively tends to simply "rubber stamp" such intelligence outsourcing:

"In effect, corporations are now able to replicate in miniature the services of a private CIA, employing active-duty and retired officers from intelligence and/or law enforcement. Lawlessness committed by this private intelligence and law enforcement capacity, which appears to enjoy near impunity, is a threat to democracy and the rule of law. In essence, corporations are now able to hire a private law enforcement capacity - which is barely constrained by legal and ethical norms - and use it to subvert or destroy civic groups. This greatly erodes the capacity of the civic sector to countervail the tremendous power of corporate and wealthy elites."
Gary Ruskin, author of the report, said:

"Corporate espionage against nonprofit organizations is an egregious abuse of corporate power that is subverting democracy. Who will rein in the forces of corporate lawlessness as they bear down upon nonprofit defenders of justice?"


www.theguardian.com...

In June last year India, followed in October by Pakistan announced they too would be closely monitoring NGOs while Der Speigel reported in 2014 that the BND had been monitoring NGOs for years. Putin seems to, once again, be way ahead of the game. Cold comfort for the NGOs and those who depend upon their work, and for the rest of us, in coming to terms with the understanding that in cahoots with Big Energy and other corporate players, our leaders may well have sold us out, along with our planet.


”These systems and this type of collection is so rife with inappropriate speculation and error – both intentionally and unintentionally – that your good behaviour doesn’t protect you.”

www.earthisland.org...



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 03:25 PM
link   
I don't know I am colour blind



Is it blue or is it yellow ? I can't hear you



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 03:35 PM
link   
a reply to: #singmuch

Cyan or chartreuse would be the compromise, acquiring both, respectively.



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 03:46 PM
link   
Very well written thread. The security apparatus of all countries that can afford it are being ramped up. If not a countries then the local yokels are trying to find out who is for them or who is against them.

T.V. and cop shows have glorified the undercover agent, and in many cases they truly are great actors and people who have been able to intervene before some SHTF.

Having sex as part of the job to gain some pillow talking rights/time... must be some kind of understanding spouse..

" Honey it don't mean nutin; it is just a job".

"I know babe, just keep the money coming in and I will forgive you".



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 03:53 PM
link   

originally posted by: 727Sky
Very well written thread. The security apparatus of all countries that can afford it are being ramped up. If not a countries then the local yokels are trying to find out who is for them or who is against them.

T.V. and cop shows have glorified the undercover agent, and in many cases they truly are great actors and people who have been able to intervene before some SHTF.

Having sex as part of the job to gain some pillow talking rights/time... must be some kind of understanding spouse..

" Honey it don't mean nutin; it is just a job".

"I know babe, just keep the money coming in and I will forgive you".


Nice work, if you've got the morals, or lack thereof, for it. Not bad money either.


The scale of public money invested in such operations was also laid bare as he disclosed that in addition to his £50,000-a-year salary, his handlers paid up to £200,000 a year into a secret bank account to help him maintain his cover.


www.telegraph.co.uk...

Not sure how I feel about my tax payments going towards all that, and then there is the money spent on falsely bringing protesters to court. The case that fell through cost £1 million...again all coming from public coffers to service the agenda of private corporations in the energy sector.



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 03:54 PM
link   
a reply to: 727Sky

Oh! And thanks for reading, and appreciating.





posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 03:58 PM
link   
In the 1940's Stalin had his security services examine Chairman Mao's excreta.

www.bbc.co.uk...



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 04:02 PM
link   

originally posted by: Cobaltic1978
In the 1940's Stalin had his security services examine Chairman Mao's excreta.

www.bbc.co.uk...



There are some places curiousity will never take me.




posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 04:07 PM
link   
An excellent article from the Guardian, the US and UK are far from alone in this...


In late 2013, official documents obtained under freedom of information showed that Canada's domestic spy agency, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), had ramped up its surveillance of activists opposed to the Northern Gateway pipeline project on 'national security' grounds. The CSIS also routinely passed information about such groups to the project's corporate architect, Calgary-based energy company, Enbridge.

The Northern Gateway is an $8 billion project to transport oil from the Alberta tar sands to the British Columbia coast, where it can be shipped to global markets. According to the documents a Canadian federal agency, the National Energy Board, worked with CSIS and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to coordinate with Enbridge, TransCanada, and other energy corporations in gathering intelligence on anti-fracking activists - despite senior police privately admitting they "could not detect a direct or specific criminal threat."

Now it has emerged that former cabinet minister Chuck Strahl - the man appointed by Canadian prime minister Stephen Harper to head up the CSIS' civilian oversight panel, the Security Intelligence Review Committee (SIRC) - has been lobbying for Enbridge since 2011.

But that's not all. According to CBC News, only one member of Strahl's spy watchdog committee "has no ties to either the current government or the oil industry." For instance, SIRC member Denis Losier sits on the board of directors of Enbridge-subsidiary, Enbridge NB, while Yves Fortier, is a former board member of TransCanada, the company behind the proposed Keystone XL pipeline.


www.theguardian.com...



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 04:39 PM
link   
The corporation operate without borders, utilising whatever law enforcement and intelligence service is available to watch those that are deemed as a threat to their operations, or public image.


In another case, the UK's Camp for Climate Action, which supports the decommissioning of coal-fired plants, was infiltrated by private security firm Vericola on behalf of three energy companies, E.ON, Scottish Power, and Scottish Resources Group.

Reviewing emails released by Wikileaks from the Texas-based private intelligence firm Stratfor, the report shows how the firm reportedly "conducted espionage against human rights, animal rights and environmental groups, on behalf of companies such as Coca-Cola." In one case, the emails suggest that Stratfor investigated People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) at Coca-Cola's request, and had access to a classified FBI investigation on PETA...
"... the factual basis of opening some of the investigations of individuals affiliated with the groups was factually weak... In some cases, we also found that the FBI extended the duration of investigations involving advocacy groups or their members without adequate basis…. In some cases, the FBI classified some of its investigations relating to nonviolent civil disobedience under its 'Acts of Terrorism' classification."

For instance, on an FBI investigation of Greenpeace, the Justice Department found that:

"... the FBI articulated little or no basis for suspecting a violation of any federal criminal statute... the FBI's opening EC [electronic communication] did not articulate any basis to suspect that they were planning any federal crimes….We also found that the FBI kept this investigation open for over 3 years, long past the corporate shareholder meetings that the subjects were supposedly planning to disrupt... We concluded that the investigation was kept open 'beyond the point at which its underlying justification no longer existed,' which was inconsistent with the FBI's Manual of Investigative and Operational Guidelines (MIOG)."


www.theguardian.com...
edit on 28-1-2016 by Anaana because: c missing



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 04:50 PM
link   
And on a last note before bed...


...the collection of intelligence through the exploitation of trusted social network is a common domestic policing strategy as well. A 2014 study demonstrated that 81% of “law enforcement professionals” use social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram) in their investigations, and that 80% agree that the creation and management of fake social media profiles is an “ethical” practice in law enforcement.


www.greenisthenewred.com...

The study in question...

www.lexisnexis.com...

Sweet dreams



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 05:12 PM
link   
a reply to: Anaana


In effect, corporations are now able to replicate in miniature the services of a private CIA, employing active-duty and retired officers from intelligence and/or law enforcement. Lawlessness committed by this private intelligence and law enforcement capacity, which appears to enjoy near impunity, is a threat to democracy and the rule of law. In essence, corporations are now able to hire a private law enforcement capacity - which is barely constrained by legal and ethical norms - and use it to subvert or destroy civic groups. This greatly erodes the capacity of the civic sector to countervail the tremendous power of corporate and wealthy elites."
Gary Ruskin, author of the report, said:

"Corporate espionage against nonprofit organizations is an egregious abuse of corporate power that is subverting democracy. Who will rein in the forces of corporate lawlessness as they bear down upon nonprofit defenders of justice?"


This is simultaneously frightening, and sickening. A known known, yet unknown unknown.
Or....... maybe corporations really are people? Can we build a prison large enough? Can we feed them ethics for lunch and facts for dinner? Should we label them all as sociopaths and make them wear a scarlet letter? S. and $.

Nobody has the power to disarm them. They have all the power and I don't see them disarming themselves. It's FUBAR as far as I can tell, and may very well be our ruin.



posted on Jan, 28 2016 @ 06:46 PM
link   
I've read reports of the FBI infiltrating animal rights clubs/humane societies to monitor, destabilize, and ridicule them. Same thing, wrapped up in sexpionage scandals etc. The premise for the FBI involvement is that animal rights events and meetings threaten to undermine the productivity of a substantial domestic industry (meat). What is so hypocritical about this is that despite the NSA disrupting profits of major domestic tech companies by reducing the appeal of their products (forcing them to install snooping tech) the FBI has not gotten involved.

Its sad how in order to protect and serve they end up knowingly destroying innocent peoples lives. Its like creating a weapon to protect your country and testing it on your own people, or killing innocent bystanders to protect a secret of state.



posted on Jan, 29 2016 @ 04:48 AM
link   
allow me to be a contrarian.
there is such a thing as eco-terrorism;

"There are a wide variety of tactics that have been used by eco-terrorists and groups associated with eco-terrorism. Examples include:
Tree spiking is a common tactic that was first used by members of EarthFirst! in 1984. Tree spiking involves hammering a small spike into the trunk of a tree that may be logged with the intention of damaging the chainsaw or mill blades and may seriously injure the logger. Only one case of serious injury has been widely reported.[10]
Arson is a tactic most associated with recent activity in the Earth Liberation Front (ELF). The ELF has been attributed with arsons of sites such as housing developments, SUV dealerships, and chain stores.[10]

Individuals accused of eco-terrorism[edit]
Wiebo Ludwig - accused several times for sabotaging oil and gas wells in Alberta, Canada
Tre Arrow
James Lee[16]
Jeff Luers
Marie Mason
David Lukas MacNeil – Convicted of conspiracy to commit what the FBI labeled an eco-terrorist plot.[17]
Daniel McGowan – Convicted of participation in an arson at a lumber company.[18]
Paul Watson – For his direct action against whale and seal hunters Watson was labeled a terrorist by Japanese and Canadian politicians as well as Greenpeace."

source: en.wikipedia.org...

then we have government organizations like the EPA (in the US) that an swoop in and take (or at least dictate usage) of your land, with no recompense or appeal.
www.washingtonpost.com...

"Earlier this year, Mike and Chantell Sackett brought a case against the EPA to the Supreme Court, challenging a “compliance order” commanding the couple to halt work on a home near Priest Lake, Idaho. The Sacketts pointed out that the land was adjacent to other vacation homes and came with a sewer hookup. The EPA said that the couple was building on protected wetlands and that they couldn’t challenge that determination in court until much later, possibly after large fines accrued."



posted on Jan, 29 2016 @ 05:05 AM
link   

originally posted by: CraftBuilder
I've read reports of the FBI infiltrating animal rights clubs/humane societies to monitor, destabilize, and ridicule them. Same thing, wrapped up in sexpionage scandals etc. The premise for the FBI involvement is that animal rights events and meetings threaten to undermine the productivity of a substantial domestic industry (meat). What is so hypocritical about this is that despite the NSA disrupting profits of major domestic tech companies by reducing the appeal of their products (forcing them to install snooping tech) the FBI has not gotten involved.

Its sad how in order to protect and serve they end up knowingly destroying innocent peoples lives. Its like creating a weapon to protect your country and testing it on your own people, or killing innocent bystanders to protect a secret of state.



Very important policy: INTIMIDATE uses words to direct .... INFILTRATE when words do not work infiltrate to learn of plans and possibly direct future actions..... EXTERMINATE when all else fails.



posted on Jan, 29 2016 @ 06:23 AM
link   

originally posted by: ladyinwaiting
This is simultaneously frightening, and sickening. A known known, yet unknown unknown.
Or....... maybe corporations really are people? Can we build a prison large enough? Can we feed them ethics for lunch and facts for dinner? Should we label them all as sociopaths and make them wear a scarlet letter? S. and $.

Nobody has the power to disarm them. They have all the power and I don't see them disarming themselves. It's FUBAR as far as I can tell, and may very well be our ruin.


Corporations are comprised of lots of people, as well as shareholders and it is counter-productive to assume that most of them are sociopaths when the reality is that they are normal, regular people, the kind that just take the pay cheque, or the dividend, and don't ask any questions above and beyond that. The Wicked Messof all this is that the boards that run the corporations have a revolving door policy with the defence and security forces, the banks and the intelligence agencies, and most significantly, Big Energy, which seems committed to furthering environmental degradation at the expense of the majority for the sake of a few.

Encouraging apathetic behaviour, as well as disrupting popular protest, appears to have been part of the longer term agenda.


But then, what's new? Back in 1975, the Trilateral Commission - a network of some 300 American, European and Japanese elites drawn from business, banking, government, academia and media founded by Chase Manhattan Bank chairman David Rockerfeller - published an influential study called The Crisis of Democracy.
The report concluded that the problems of governance "stem from an excess of democracy" which makes government "less powerful and more active" due to being "overloaded with participants and demands." This democratic excess at the time consisted of:

"... a marked upswing in other forms of citizen participation, in the form of marches, demonstrations, protest movements, and 'cause' organizations... [including] markedly higher levels of self-consciousness on the part of blacks, Indians, Chicanos, white ethnic groups, students, and women... [and] a general challenge to existing systems of authority, public and private... People no longer felt the same compulsion to obey those whom they had previously considered superior to themselves in age, rank, status, expertise, character, or talents."

The solution, therefore, is "to restore the prestige and authority of central government institutions," including "hegemonic power" in the world. This requires the government to somehow "reinforce tendencies towards political passivity" and to instill "a greater degree of moderation in democracy." This is because:

"... the effective operation of a democratic political system usually requires some measure of apathy and noninvolvement on the part of some individuals and groups... In itself, this marginality on the part of some groups is inherently undemocratic, but it has also been one of the factors which has enabled democracy to function effectively."


www.theguardian.com...



new topics

top topics



 
14
<<   2 >>

log in

join