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30 Scientific Studies Showing the Link between Vaccines and Autism

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posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 09:28 AM
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30 Scientific Studies Showing the Link between Vaccines and Autism

I would have said "a link" rather than "the link," but T&Cs require I use the title as given at the link.


You want to know the real kicker? There are 49, I couldn't fit them all in the note character range.


I would say that the "real kicker" is that autism and vaccines are and have always been inextricably linked:


In fact, the first research paper to offer evidence that vaccines may cause autism was THE first paper ever written on autism. In the 1930’s, Child Psychiatrist Leo Kanner discovered 11 children over the course of several years who displayed a novel set of neurological symptoms that had never been described in the medical literature, where children were withdrawn, uncommunicative and displayed similar odd behaviors. This disorder would become known as “autism.” In the paper, Dr. Kanner noted that onset of the disorder began following the administration of a small pox vaccine. This paper, was published in 1943, and evidence that vaccination causes an ever increasing rate of neurological and immunological regressions, including autism, has been mounting from that time until now.


This was brand new information to me! I thought it might be to others as well.

Since the link between autism and vaccines is a frequent topic of discussion on ATS, for reference purposes, I have tried to find a link to each study listed, but for most I was only able to find the abstract. Following is the title of each study (linked where possible), its lead author(s), its date of publication, and a brief description of the study. Many pertain to the link between Mercury and autism, which would also apply to the Thimerosol used in many vaccines, now and in the past. Fair warning: Some of these studies are more layman friendly than others!

Starting at the beginning, with the above cited study, which first identified the syndrome we now know as autism with adverse effects from the small pox vaccine:

Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact
Leo Kanner, Johns Hopkins University, 1943

Hepatitis B Vaccination of Male Neonates and Autism
Annals of Epidemiology, September 2009
CM Gallagher, MS Goodman, Stony Brook University Medical Center


Boys vaccinated as neonates had threefold greater odds for autism diagnosis compared to boys never vaccinated or vaccinated after the first month of life.


Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2006
Robert Natafa, et al, Laboratoire Philippe Auguste, Paris, France


These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder.


Theoretical aspects of autism: Causes—A review
Journal of Immunotoxicology, January-March 2011
Helen V. Ratajczak, PhD


Autism could result from more than one cause, with different manifestations in different individuals that share common symptoms. Documented causes of autism include genetic mutations and/or deletions, viral infections, and encephalitis following vaccination.


Uncoupling of ATP-mediated Calcium Signaling and Dysregulated IL-6 Secretion in Dendritic Cells by Nanomolar Thimerosal
Environmental Health Perspectives, July 2006.
Samuel R. Goth, Ruth A. Chu Jeffrey P. Gregg


This study demonstrates that very low-levels of Thimerosal can contribute to immune system disregulation.


Gender-selective toxicity of thimerosal
Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2009 Mar;61(2):133-6. Epub 2008 Sep 3.
Branch DR, Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto


A recent report shows a correlation of the historical use of thimerosal in therapeutic immunizations with the subsequent development of autism; however, this association remains controversial. Autism occurs approximately four times more frequently in males compared to females; thus, studies of thimerosal toxicity should take into consideration gender-selective effects. The present study was originally undertaken to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of thimersosal in male and female CD1 mice. However, during the limited MTD studies, it became apparent that thimerosal has a differential MTD that depends on whether the mouse is male or female.


Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant monkeys exposed to Vaccines Containing Thimerosal
Environmental Health Perspectives, Aug 2005.
Thomas Burbacher, PhD, University of Washington


This study demonstrates clearly and unequivocally that ethyl mercury, the kind of mercury found in vaccines, not only ends up in the brain, but leaves double the amount of inorganic mercury as methyl mercury, the kind of mercury found in fish. This work is groundbreaking because little is known about ethyl mercury, and many health authorities have asserted that the mercury found in vaccines is the “safe kind.” This study also delivers a strong rebuke of the Institute of Medicine’s recommendation in 2004 to no longer pursue the mercury-autism connection.


Increases in the number of reactive glia in the visual cortex of Macaca fascicularis following subclinical long-term methyl mercury exposure
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1994
Charleston JS et al, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Washington


The identities of the reactive glial cells and the implications for the long-term function and survivability of the neurons due to changes in the glial population following subclinical long-term exposure to mercury are discussed.


Neuroglial Activation and Neuroinflammation in the Brain of Patients with Autism
Annals of Neurology, Feb 2005.
Diana L. Vargas, MD [Johns Hopkins University]


This study, performed independently and using a different methodology than Dr. Herbert (see above) reached the same conclusion: the brains of autistic children are suffering from inflammation.


Autism: A Brain Disorder, or a Disorder That Affects the Brain?
Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 2005
Martha R. Herbert M.D., Ph.D., Harvard University


Autism is defined behaviorally, as a syndrome of abnormalities involving language, social reciprocity and hyperfocus or reduced behavioral flexibility. It is clearly heterogeneous, and it can be accompanied by unusual talents as well as by impairments, but its underlying biological and genetic basis in unknown. Autism has been modeled as a brain-based, strongly genetic disorder, but emerging findings and hypotheses support a broader model of the condition as a genetically influenced and systemic.



(Continued in next post...)




posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 09:29 AM
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(Continued)



Activation of Methionine Synthase by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Dopamine: a Target for Neurodevelopmental Toxins and Thimerosal
Molecular Psychiatry, July 2004.
Richard C. Deth, PhD [Northeastern University]


This study demonstrates how Thimerosal inhibits methylation, a central driver of cellular communication and development.


Validation of the Phenomenon of Autistic Regression Using Home Videotapes
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2005
Emily Werner, PhD; Geraldine Dawson, PhD, University of Washington


Conclusion This study validates the existence of early autistic regression.


Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set
Journal of Child Neurology, 2007
M. Catherine DeSoto, PhD, Robert T. Hitlan, PhD -Department of Psychology, University of Northern Iowa


Excerpt: “We have reanalyzed the data set originally reported by Ip et al. in 2004 and have found that the original p value was in error and that a significant relation does exist between the blood levels of mercury and diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Moreover, the hair sample analysis results offer some support for the idea that persons with autism may be less efficient and more variable at eliminating mercury from the blood.”


Developmental Regression and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Child With Autism
Journal of Child Neurology, February 2006
Jon S. Poling, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital


Excerpt: “Children who have (mitochondrial-related) dysfunctional cellular energy metabolism might be more prone to undergo autistic regression between 18 and 30 months of age if they also have infections or immunizations at the same time.”


Oxidative Stress in Autism: Elevated Cerebellar 3-nitrotyrosine Levels
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2008
Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska, – Dept of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School


Excerpt: The preliminary data suggest a need for more extensive studies of oxidative stress, its relationship to the environmental factors and its possible attenuation by antioxidants in autism.”


Large Brains in Autism: The Challenge of Pervasive Abnormality
The Neuroscientist, 2005.
Martha Herbert, MD, PhD, Harvard University


This study helps refute the notion that the brains of autistic children are simply wired differently and notes, “neuroinflammation appears to be present in autistic brain tissue from childhood through adulthood.” Dr. Herbert suggests that chronic disease or an external environmental source (like heavy metals) may be causing the inflammation.


Evidence of Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Neuronal Insult in Autism
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Nov-Dec 2006.
Janet Kern, Anne Jones, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center


“This article discusses the evidence for the case that some children with autism may become autistic from neuronal cell death or brain damage sometime after birth as result of insult; and addresses the hypotheses that toxicity and oxidative stress may be a cause of neuronal insult in autism… the article discusses what may be happening over the course of development and the multiple factors that may interplay and make these children more vulnerable to toxicity, oxidative stress, and neuronal insult.”


Oxidative Stress in Autism
Pathophysiology, 2006.
Abha Chauhan, Ved Chauhan


This study provides a helpful overview of the growing evidence supporting the link between oxidative stress and autism.


Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors
Neurotoxicology, Jan 2005.
S. Jill James, PhD, University of Arkansas


This recent study demonstrates that Thimerosal lowers or inhibits the body’s ability to produce Glutathione, an antioxidant and the body’s primary cellular-level defense against mercury.


Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces motor neuron death in mice
Neuromolecular Medicine, 2007
Christopher Shaw, Ph.D., Department of Ophthalmology and Program in Neuroscience, University of British Columbia


This study demonstrates the extreme toxicity of the aluminum adjuvant used as a preservative in vaccines.


Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas
Health & Place, 2006
Raymond F. Palmer, University of Texas Health Science Center


This study demonstrated the correlation between environmental mercury and autism rates in Texas.


Autism Spectrum Disorders in Relation to Distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants in the SF Bay Area
Environmental Health Perspectives, September, 2006
Gayle Windham, Div. of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Health Services


Excerpt: “Our results suggest a potential association between autism and estimated metal concentrations, and possibly solvents, in ambient air around the birth residence.”


A Case Series of Children with Apparent Mercury Toxic Encephalopathies Manifesting with Clinical Symptoms of Regressive Autistic Disorder
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2007
David A. Geier, Mark R. Geier


This study reviewed the case histories and medical profiles of nine autistic children and concluded that eight of the nine children were mercury toxic and this toxicity manifested itself in a manner consistent with Autism Spectrum Disorders.


The Changing Prevalence of Autism In California
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, April 2003
Mark F. Blaxill, David S. Baskin, and Walter O. Spitzer


This study helps to refute the supposition made by some researchers that autism’s epidemic may only be due to “diagnostic substitution”.


Mitochondrial Energy-Deficient Endophenotype in Autism
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2008
J. Jay Gargus and Faiqa Imtiaz, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine,


While evidence points to a multigenic etiology of most autism, the pathophysiology of the disorder has yet to be defined and the underlying genes and biochemical pathways they subserve remain unknown.



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 09:31 AM
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(Continued)



Bridging from Cells to Cognition in Autism Pathophysiology: Biological Pathways to Defective Brain Function and Plasticity
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2008
Matthew P. Anderson, Brian S. Hooker and Martha R. Herbert, Cambridge Health Alliance/Harvard Medical School/Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center


We review evidence to support a model where the disease process underlying autism may begin when an in utero or early postnatal environmental, infectious, seizure, or autoimmune insult triggers an immune response that increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the brain that leads to DNA damage (nuclear and mitochondrial) and metabolic enzyme blockade and that these inflammatory and oxidative stressors persist beyond early development (with potential further exacerbations), producing ongoing functional consequences.


(Interesting side note: I believe one of the authors of the above study, Brian S. Hooker, is the same person who Dr. Thompson, former CDC epidemiologist and the infamous "CDC Whistleblower," first spoke to about his part in destroying documents and falsifying study results which linked autism and the MMR -- measles, mumps, ruebella -- vaccine.)

Heavy-Metal Toxicity—With Emphasis on Mercury
John Neustadt, ND, and Steve Pieczenik, MD, PhD


Conclusion: Metals are ubiquitous in our environment, and exposure to them is inevitable. However, not all people accumulate toxic levels of metals or exhibit symptoms of metal toxicity, suggesting that genetics play a role in their potential to damage health.


Proximity to point sources of environmental mercury release as a predictor of autism prevalence
Health & Place, 2008
Raymond F. Palmer et al, University of Texas Health Science Center


This study should be viewed as hypothesis-generating – a first step in examining the potential role of environmental mercury and childhood developmental disorders. Nothing is known about specific exposure routes, dosage, timing, and individual susceptibility. We suspect that persistent low-dose exposures to various environmental toxicants, including mercury, that occur during critical windows of neural development among genetically susceptible children (with a diminished capacity for metabolizing accumulated toxicants) may increase the risk for developmental disorders such as autism.


Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorder in Portugal: prevalence, clinical characterization, and medical conditions
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 2007
Guiomar Oliveira MD PhD et al, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Criança, Hospital Pediátrico de Coimbra; Assunção Ataíde BSc, Direcção Regional de Educação do Centro Coimbra;


The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal.


---------------------------------------------------------------

Note: While I find all this quite intriguing as far as my understanding goes, that's as far as it goes... I don't pretend to understand it all!!!

Final note: Some of these studies may have been contradicted or even disproven by subsequent studies, and I welcome anyone who knows and shares such studies as well. Likewise, I welcome any info on other studies that substantiate these studies. My intention for this thread is for informational and easy reference purposes -- yea or nay or neutral!



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 09:36 AM
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a reply to: Boadicea

Thank goodness pharmaceutical companies have already been rendered legally invulnerable to responsibility for damage caused by their often mandatory products. Whew...close one for them.



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 09:39 AM
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a reply to: Urantia1111

Well-said. It's a sad state of affairs - JUST like those who supposedly "represent us" in the Government.

ZERO accountability. ugh


S & F OP
edit on 9-12-2015 by FamCore because: (no reason given)



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 09:45 AM
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a reply to: FamCore
a reply to: Urantia1111


Thank goodness pharmaceutical companies have already been rendered legally invulnerable to responsibility for damage caused by their often mandatory products.



Zero accountability.


Exactly -- and it was a no-brainer for most of us! We knew when the vax makers were given immunity (pun intended) that no good would come of it... much like civil asset forfeiture laws. They get genuine immunity and we get autism??? That may be an overstatement. Or maybe not.



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 09:45 AM
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Texan here, we got more mercury emissions in this area than anywhere else. Why I stick to the -sweat every day- protocol. In the tub dropping off a few liters of gunktified water right now.




posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 09:48 AM
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a reply to: Boadicea

In relation to a few of the studies you posted, many of the participants involved seemed to have Autism prior to their inoculation. Like many have said before, vaccines may exacerbate an already underlying condition, much like a schizophrenic taking psycho-active drugs may increase the severity of the symptoms. Much of the info and studies presented in the OPs should not be new to anyone well versed in the "debate" of vaccines being the causation behind autism.


edit on 9-12-2015 by NateTheAnimator because: Grammatical error



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 09:52 AM
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originally posted by: NateTheAnimator
a reply to: Boadicea

In relation to a few of the studies you posted, many of the participants involved seemed to have Autism prior to their inoculation. Like many have said before vaccines may exacerbate an already underlying condition, much like a schizophrenic taking psycho-active drugs may increase the severity of the symptoms.


Excellent point -- thank you. I had the same thought as I read the studies (or as much as available.) If kids already have a high mercury level, could even mercury-free vaccines stimulate some kind of autistic response? That would be something worth studying.



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 10:01 AM
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a reply to: Boadicea

i think some people will need hundreds more of studies to be satisfied and really start to accept the possibility that vaccines arent as safe and useful as they thought.. Why is it so hard to spread truth? Because of skeptics, and trolls of course.



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 10:08 AM
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a reply to: _damon

It's a very sad world when Big Pharma can jab anyone and everyone with impunity... but those who want to ensure the safety of the vaccines are the bad guys and are fought tooth and nail every step of the way... go figure.



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 10:10 AM
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a reply to: Boadicea

As far as I know vaccines that contain mercury contain a derivative version of the heavy metal called thimerosal, so its plausible but extremely improbable that thimerosal would cause any sort of neurological damage.
The person being inoculated would have to have enough mercury already in their system to have suffered some mild mercury poisoning in order for that to be remotely plausible. Even then you couldn't really blame the vaccine as the cause.
If a study hasn't been conducted on what you mentioned I'd still be interested in seeing the results regardless of the outcome.

edit on 9-12-2015 by NateTheAnimator because: Grammatical error



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 10:35 AM
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a reply to: NateTheAnimator

Yes, that's how I understand it too, that the thimerosal is the form of mercury in vaccines:

Talking about Vaccines: Thimerosal

Sep 30, 2015 - Thimerosal (ethyl mercury) is a widely used preservative in biologic and medical products. Since 2001, all vaccines routinely recommended for children 6 years of age and younger are thimerosal-free, with the exception of some formulations of inactivated influenza vaccine.


Several of the studies listed pertain to a link between the thimerosal and autism. I'm not sure a true double-blind placebo study could be performed; but perhaps a review of cases of autism where high mercury levels are found, and then find out where/how else the child might have been exposed to the mercury levels. I'm not sure how it could be done.



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 10:37 AM
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originally posted by: Boadicea

originally posted by: NateTheAnimator
a reply to: Boadicea

In relation to a few of the studies you posted, many of the participants involved seemed to have Autism prior to their inoculation. Like many have said before vaccines may exacerbate an already underlying condition, much like a schizophrenic taking psycho-active drugs may increase the severity of the symptoms.


Excellent point -- thank you. I had the same thought as I read the studies (or as much as available.) If kids already have a high mercury level, could even mercury-free vaccines stimulate some kind of autistic response? That would be something worth studying.


There are three components; thimerosal which is the mercury based preservative, protein fragments of whatever the immune systems is to be trained against, and adjuvants which stimulate the immune system into generating a response.



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 10:44 AM
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a reply to: Boadicea

Don't you know that the vaccination-autism link is already settled science?! Why are you wasting your time bringing scientific studies up that prove the science is unsettled?! You shouldn't do that...

/sarc

But seriously, good job laying out all of the links. I don't have to read any of them, though, because I already know enough that artificially dicking around with the immune system is a bad thing (for the most part), and doing so just to avoid mostly non-lethal or non-disfiguring diseases is a lazy way to avoid feeling temporarily uncomfortable due to illness.

Personally, I don't play that game with my body unless I'm forced to (like when my daughter was born and I had to get the TDAP shot to be able to visit with her and my wife in the hospital). And couple that with the newly-discovered direct link from the brain to the immune system, and I think that it's absolutely asinine for people to buy into the all-vaccines-are-great-for-you societal meme that has been going around for decades.

I'll err on the side of caution with my own body--it hasn't failed me yet, as I stand by and watch most people I know get sick multiple times a year and I remain healthy. Anecdotal evidence, sure, but it works for me.


edit on 9-12-2015 by SlapMonkey because: do baby seals go clubbing?



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 10:45 AM
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a reply to: stormcell


There are three components; thimerosal which is the mercury based preservative, protein fragments of whatever the immune systems is to be trained against, and adjuvants which stimulate the immune system into generating a response.


Forgive my lack of comprehension, but I'm not sure exactly what you mean!!! Are you saying there are three components to the vaccine? Or to the link between vaccines and autism?

I know there have also been links found/studied between aluminum and autism, and that aluminum is a common adjuvant in vaccines. I don't understand how the adjuvant works though or why it is necessary. In theory, as I understand it, the adjuvant is supposed to stimulate the body's immune response... but I don't understand why the immune system needs a stimulant to do what it does anyway.



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 10:49 AM
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a reply to: Boadicea




but perhaps a review of cases of autism where high mercury levels are found, and then find out where/how else the child might have been exposed to the mercury levels. I'm not sure how it could be done.


Yeah finding the source(s) of mercury exposure would be kind of tough, then again it might not be. Mercury isn't used for many applications. Maybe drinking water containing high levels of Chlorine? Chlorine I believe contains some form of sodium that is derived from mercury... And I believe chlorine for a awhile was a used to disinfect and filter drinking water and public sanitation areas. May want to fact check that.


edit on 9-12-2015 by NateTheAnimator because: Spelling



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 10:53 AM
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a reply to: SlapMonkey


Don't you know that the vaccination-autism link is already settled science?! Why are you wasting your time bringing scientific studies up that prove the science is unsettled?! You shouldn't do that...

/sarc


I'm guess I'm just a stubborn ol' broad that likes beating her head against the wall!


But seriously, good job laying out all of the links.


Thanks! Maybe someone(s) will find it useful one day...



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 10:59 AM
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a reply to: Boadicea

Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact
Leo Kanner, Johns Hopkins University, 1943

This actually suggests nature, not nurture. The father of case 2 is 44, a plant pathologist, mildly obsessive, and was a late talker. Case 2 is an only child, meaning the father probably had problems (or no interest) in developing a romantic relationship until rather late in life. There was also an uncle who didn't talk until he was 6. The father of case 3 is a professor, immersed in his work to the point of excluding social contact. Case 4 is also the son of an engineer. (This case suffered measles, chickenpox, and pertussis, the vaccines being unavailable then, so we can't blame MMR, varicella, or DTaP/TDaP vaccines.) Cases 5 through 7 are the children of psychiatrists (one of whom did a bang-up job of diagnosing his daughter deaf and feeble-minded), continuing the STEM trend. Case 7 is apparently one of two autistic children, and their father could be on the spectrum, too. Case 8's father is a chemist and a lawyer, not interested in social activities, and his mother is a psychologist; her mother was a psychologist with obsessive tics. Case 9 had an uncle psychiatrist. Case 10's father was a psychiatrist.

Scanning the article, I saw only a single reference to vaccination. One of the cases had diarrhea and a fever after the smallpox vaccination. Since smallpox has not been on the US vaccination schedule for years -- and I suspect it has been withdrawn pretty much everywhere else -- there is evidently no correlation between it and autism.

Kanner himself draws no conclusions about vaccination vis-a-vis autism, and does not even mention it in his discussion. He allows for the possibility that parental neglect could be a contributing factor, but strongly implies it is hereditary, remarking at length on his cases' highly-intelligent but cold or broken families, and how they are more concerned with abstractions than other people.

Since Kanner has been hijacked and misconstrued, and I expect the same level of rigor and honesty in the rest of the article, I'll stop here.



posted on Dec, 9 2015 @ 11:06 AM
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originally posted by: NateTheAnimator
a reply to: Boadicea
Yeah finding the source(s) of mercury exposure would be kind of tough, then again it might not be. Mercury isn't used for many applications. Maybe drinking water containing high levels of Chlorine? Chlorine I believe contains some form of sodium that is derived from mercury... And I believe chlorine for a awhile was a used to disinfect and filter drinking water and public sanitation areas. May want to fact check that.


Very interesting... and troubling. I found this at the National Resources Defense Council:


Mercury is used to manufacture chlorine for bleach and other industrial products, and to make hard plastics in China.


And this...


When mercury enters bodies of water, biological processes transform it to methylmercury, a highly toxic and bioaccumulative form.


So for those municipalities that use chlorine to treat their water supplies, even if only trace amounts of mercury are left behind, those trace amounts in our tap water could have a profound effect. And if it's combined with flouride, an aluminum product, those effects could increase -- perhaps -- exponentially?

Very disturbing. Especially for males, who are disproportionately affected by mercury.

ETA: Source for quotes.
edit on 9-12-2015 by Boadicea because: (no reason given)




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