a reply to: nOraKat
There are several critical differences between ziggurats and Egyptian pyramids:
- ziggurats are stacked platforms with ramps or staircases on the outside
- ziggurats had temples on the top
- ziggurats don't have any internal structures/voids; no chambers, halls or shafts
- ziggurats were constructed of mud brick right up till the last ones were built
- ziggurats had painted exteriors
- ziggurats aren't found in clusters
- ziggurats aren't found alongside tombs
The pyramids of Egypt had smooth exteriors, clad in polished white limestone, with no external staircases and no temples or any other structures on
top — in fact, they terminated in a pointed capstone. Egyptian pyramids have chambers, halls and shafts and are found in necropolises, in proximity
to other burial structures (mastabas, rock cut tombs, smaller "satellite" pyramids).
Perhaps most importantly, the pyramids contained sarcophagi and starting with the Pyramid of Unas,
which are mostly spells/utterances focusing on death/rebirth/the afterlife and
The rest of this post isn't a direct response to your comment about ziggurats but I'm including it here because it's a continuation of my thoughts
above and I should really have expounded more on the evidence beyond the apparent evolution of pyramid construction from mastaba to their massive
Much of the speculation for alternative purposes for the construction of pyramids has to do with the fact that no complete mummies of pharaohs have
been found in any of the large pyramids. This is often shortened to "no mummies have been found in the Egyptian pyramids." This is an EXTREMELY
. Here's a short list of remains found in pyramids:
- In the Pyramid of Djoser was found a mummified left foot and coffins including one containing the remains of a child.
- A skull, right arm and shin were found in the sarcophagus in the pyramid of Unas
- In the Pyramid of Teti, a mummified arm and shoulder were found on the floor of the burial chamber
- In a smaller satellite pyramid, the remains of Iput, wife of Teti and daughter of Unas, were found in a cedar coffin within a limestone
- In the Red Pyramid, remains of what is believed to have been Sneferu's mummy were found.
- Charred bones were found in the Pyramid of Amenemhet III
- Next to the burial chamber of Menkaure's (son of Khafra) pyramid, where his basalt sarcophagus was found, were pieces of
a wooden coffin bearing his name and partial skeletal remains of a woman
- In a burial chamber of one of the three satellite pyramids of Menkaure's pyramid (G3b), the remains of a young woman were found within a pink
This is just a few such finds. There were also canopic jars, remains of canopic chests, funerary objects/burial goods, at least one death mask, etc
all found in pyramids. Not to mention what was found in smaller scale pyramids that continued to be built in Egypt and centuries later the
of the Ku#e royalty were built and are indisputably tombs.
Then there's the historical texts...
edit on 2015-11-6 by theantediluvian because: (no reason given)