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Aristarchus of Samos c. 310 – c. 230 BC was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system). He was influenced by Philolaus of Croton, but he identified the "central fire" with the Sun, and put the other planets in their correct order of distance around the Sun. As Anaxagoras before him, he also suspected that the stars were just other bodies like the sun. His astronomical ideas were often rejected in favor of the geocentric theories of Aristotle and Ptolemy.
Some facts suggest that Aristarchus' heliocentric model was an accepted theory for some centuries. It is known that a demonstration of the model was given by Seleucus of Seleucia, a Hellenistic astronomer who lived a century after Aristarchus, but no full record has been found. Pliny the Elder and Seneca referred to planets' retrograde motion as an apparent (and not real) phenomenon, which is an implication of heliocentrism rather than geocentrism.
10 As for the likeness of their faces, each had the face of a man; each of the four had the face of a lion on the right side, each of the four had the face of an ox on the left side, and each of the four had the face of an eagle. 11 Thus were their faces.
The Jewish scriptures were translated into Greek in the two centuries immediately before the birth of Christ. The Greek version of these books is called the Septuagint. The Jewish Bible in Hebrew is called the Masoretic text (meaning passing down after a Hebrew word Masorah; for Jewish scholars and rabbis curated and commented on the text). The Greek (Septuagint) version of Ezekiel differs considerably from the Hebrew (Masoretic) version – it is shorter and possibly represents an early interpretation of the book we have today (according to the masoretic tradition) – while other ancient manuscript fragments differ from both.
As I looked, a stormy wind came out of the north: a great cloud with brightness around it and fire flashing forth continually, and in the middle of the fire, something like gleaming amber. In the middle of it was something like four living creatures. This was their appearance: they were of human form.Each had four faces, and each of them had four wings. 7 Their legs were straight, and the soles of their feet were like the sole of a calf’s foot; and they sparkled like burnished bronze.
When the planet Venus approaches the earth now, it is only partly illuminated, a portion of the disc being in shadow; it has phases like the moon. At this time, being closer to the earth, it is most brilliant. When Venus had a coma, the horns of its crescent must have been extended by the illuminated portions of the coma. It had two long appendages and looked like a bull's head.
Rabbinical authorities say that `the devotion of Israel to this worship of the bull is in part explained by the circumstance that, while passing through the Red Sea, they beheld the celestial Throne, and most distinctly of the four creatures about the Throne, they saw the ox.