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The Newark Earthworks are the largest known complex of geometric earthworks on the planet, according to archaeologists. Radiocarbon dating puts construction at around A.D. 1 to A.D. 400
They cover about 4.5 square miles, and about 7 million cubic feet of earth was used to construct them.
One piece of the Earthworks is a giant octagon, large enough to fit four Roman Colosseums. Each of the octagon’s points lines up perfectly with specific times in the lunar cycle, pointing to the northernmost and southernmost places where the moon rises and sets.
The moon goes through an elaborate cycle, sort of like the sun, in that there’s a solstice and an equinox — it’s the rhythm of the year
The lunar cycle lasts 18.6 years. At the beginning, middle and end of that cycle, the arc is either at its widest or narrowest, depending on the part of the cycle we are in.
That means that once every 9.3 years, the moon’s arc is either at its widest or narrowest.
That the Newark Earthworks’ octagon lines up with those widest and narrowest moonrises and moonsets suggests that their builders, the Hopewell, understood the cycle.
Excerpts from my 2001 paper Possible Geodetic Properties and Relationships of
Some Monumental Earthworks in the Middle Ohio Valley, A Preliminary Inquiry.
The relationships between Newark Earthworks and Marietta Square and the orientations and relationships of the various monuments of Newark Earthworks offer the best evidence of knowledge and practice of geodesy. The Newark Octagon and Marietta Square ratio of arc distance to longitude difference, the azimuth of the Newark Octagon, and the bearings between Newark Circle and the Octagon Circle infer precise understanding of the mathematical ratio of latitude to longitude. The precise commensuration of the Newark to Marietta arc distance and their longitude difference with the SO module (earth’s angular orbital motion per day) infers a precise understanding of astronomic constants and the scale of the earth. The redundancy of expression of the same relationships makes it very difficult to discount the relationships as coincidental. ... The fact that the largest of the monuments express these geodetic relationships also argues against coincidence. Given the distances involved, creating the relationships between the Middle Ohio monuments could have been accomplished using direct surveying and mathematics, and thus does not necessarily infer an astronomical method of the determination of longitude. If the Newark to Fort Center relationships are intentional, use of an astronomical method for determination of longitude is also inferred.
I conclude that the builders of the Middle Ohio earthworks understood aspects of geodesy, including accurate astronomical knowledge, knowledge of the scale and shape of the earth, knowledge of their location on the earth, and how to place find and point position.
The alignment of the Octagon earthwork nearly corresponds to the northerly lunar major extrema rise/set azimuth. According to Thomas (1894), the Octagon's azimuth is 52.15° E. of N. Further discussion of possible reasons for the orientation of the Octagon is found in the Temporal Epoch Calculations page.
Newark Octagon to Marietta Capitolium Mound, arc distance = CIR / 365.0
Newark Octagon to Marietta Capitolium Mound, longitude difference = CIR / 365.0
Newark Octagon to Marietta Quadranau Mound, arc distance = CIR / 366.0
Lunar orbits per rotation = 0.036501
Lunar orbits per day = 0.036601
Newark Observatory Mound to Newark Octagon Center = 0.000100 radians
Newark Observatory Circle to Fort Center Circle = 0.0365016 CIR
The great circles at Newark align to Marietta Earthworks.