Because many people have problems with stealth development at the world (except USA) during latest 15 years, and because of many mistakes and fake
planes, I made a short tables describing the subject.
At the mid 70s, soviets created three big aeronautical projects. First was I-90 (istrebitel ? fighter) with requirement for heavy mulitrole fighter
MFI and light combat fighter LFI. MiG and Yakovlev responded to MFI. MiG proposed heavy canard plane izdeje (object, thing) 1.42 with 16 manoeuvring
surfaces, wedged air intake and nozzle with 2D thrust vectoring. Other differences between MiG 1,42 MFI and prototype demonstrator MiG 1,44 was in
refueling probe, slightly different shape of the wing and modified dielectric radome with circular cross section. Yakovlev also proposed the canard
fighter, but only with one engine. This was a big problem for soviet air force and later it became a reason, why Yakovlev lost to MiG. Sukhoi did not
respond, because they believed that Su-27 is so timeless, that it will be best fighter at the world till next century. However when work on MiG MFI
progressed, they saw that it will be a big rival. So they proposed their own fighter. It was not a MFI proposal, because this competition ended with
MiG as a winner two years before Sukhoi began work on heavy fighter. Designers used pure experimental project S-32, which was meant as a competitor to
american Grumman X-29A and transformed it into the most advanced 5th generation fighter with forward swept wing. The new project S-32 Berkut had later
problems with weight and so radical changes in concept were made, that it acquired new designation S-37. But people misleaded it with Su-37 and it
acquired the definitive designation Su-47 Berkut. None of the MFI planes will be serial produced.
Situation in LFI project was slightly different. The most developed concept was MiG izdeje 33 which at a glance resembled General Dynamics F-16, but
it was much more advanced. MiG does not have money to develop both MFI and LFI at stroke, so they dropped LFI and work continued only on MFI. Concept
was later sold to China and it become FC-1/JF-17 fighter. Yakovlev proposed modified fighter Yak-41 with designation Yak-43. It had some changes for
better stealth characteristics and more powerfull engine. Sukhoi did not joint the MFI program, so they concentrated their attention on LFI design. It
was a single engined canard fighter in many aspects similar to swedish SAAB JAS-39 Grippen. Its designation was S-37 LFI, but the work was dropped in
1992 because soviet air force was interested only in MFI program. At the mid. 90s, when Russia was at big economic crisis, progress on MFI was
stopped. Later the VVS officials realized, that they do not have enough money for investment and operation costs of advanced heavy fighter. So the
attention switched to lighter, simpler and primarily cheaper plane LFS. Change I (istrebitel - fighter) to S (samoljot - aircraft) meant that the new
plane must have real multirole capability not only for air-to-air but also for air-to-ground attack. The work started around 1994, however the program
was officialy launched at april 1999. MiG proposed one and two engined variant of its new fighter called I-2000. The design requirements for I-2000
call for reduced radar and infrared visibility and very high manoeuvrability, as well as short take-off and landing. The aircraft will have a blended
fuselage/centre wing and a thick wing centre-section, with curved leading and trailing edges. Take-off and landing runs are short thanks to a
specially designed landing gear that permits approaches at high angles of attack. The plane was not selected in Russia, but MiG sold the one engined
design to Iran and it become iranian fighter Shafagh. Sukhoi proposed family of light aircrafts, derived from S-54 trainer. The S-54 is essentially a
smaller, single-engined Su-35, with a more conventional layout than the I-2000. Redesigned single seat S-55 has more advanced weapon systems intended
for air comat. The final design was a stealthy S-56 tandem triplane with twin delta wing. Yakovlev proposed advanced supersonic STOVL fighter with
power system similar to Lockheed F-35. In some aspects, it resembled the later BAe JSF design. In 2001 the LFS was transformed to Pak-Fa program.
Later the VVS informed, that the new 5th generation plane for russian air force will be Sukhoi design T-50 Pak-Fa. Both MiG and Yakovlev have 15
percent share on development and manufacturing.
Second big program Sh-90 (for Shturmovik for the 1990s) was intended to develop a successor to the Su-25 Frogfoot. Only Sukhoi proposed stealthy plane
with forward swept wing called T-12. Featuring an unusual configuration employing twin forward fuselages housing separate cockpits, the design
included V-tail. The left side forward fuselage was to provide the pilot's station and carry the radar sensors in the nose, whereas the other forward
fuselage was to accommodate the weapons operator and an electro-optical fire-control system. The design called for a maximum takeoff weight of 20
tonnes, and the type was to be powered by one or two non-afterburning engines developing 100 kN of thrust. All weapons were to be carried in two large
bays inside the fuse lages instead of on wing-mounted or fuselage-mounted pylons. The aircraft would have been approximately 16 m long, with a
wingspan of 19.5 m. Reports suggest that work on the Sh 90 was progressing seriously and that a production line was planned at Irkutsk. However,
aspirations for the aircraft were dashed by the developments that overtook Russia in the early 1990s. Low-cost successors to the Su-25 could come as
ground attack versions of new Russian jet trainers like the MiG-AT or Yak-130. However, the air forces have shown little interest in such a solution.
Still, Mikoyan plans to develop two variants in the shape of the two-seat MiG-ATC combat trainer and the singleseat MiG-AC light-attack aircraft.
Yakolev has offered a series of Yak-130 derivatives (dubbed Yak-131, Yak-133 and Yak-135) in single- and twoseat configurations. They are to be
equipped either with the Moskit-2 or FIAR Grifo radar.
The third program was B-90 for a new advanced bomber. However this made more questions than answers. The only presented design was not very successful
Sukhoi T-60. It is possible, that Tupolev worked on some advanced Tu-160 concepts (that were too ambicious at the mid 70s), but the more probable is
that the stealth concept was abadoned and attention switched to high speed and hypersonic concepts like Tu-360, Tu-2000 or MiG 3.01.
There was also extensive Myasischev M-67 project with all stealthy manned and unmanned planes developed for high altitude reconnaissance and spy
missions. It started in mid 80s by order of Ministry of Deffence as a respond to USA SDI program.
You can find more on my web at www.hitechweb.szm.sk/stealth4c.htm /stealth4d.htm /fightersSF02.htm /fightersSF03.htm /berkut.htm ......
edit: resized images/photos
[edit on 20-5-2005 by Seekerof]