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In the puzzle, a fictional king is choosing a new advisor and gathers the three wisest people in the land. He promises the contest will be fair, then puts either a blue or white hat on each of their heads and tells them all that the first person to stand up and correctly deduce the colour of their own hat will become his new advisor.
Selmer Bringsjord set up a similar situation for the three robots - two were prevented from talking, then all three were asked which one was still able to speak. All attempt to say "I don't know", but only one succeeds - and when it hears its own voice, it understands that it was not silenced, saying "Sorry, I know now!"
However, as we can assume that all three robots were coded the same, technically, all three have passed this self-awareness test.
Bringsjord's work will be presented at the RO-MAN conference in Japan, which runs from 31 August to 4 September 2015.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the academic field of study which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behavior. Major AI researchers and textbooks define this field as "the study and design of intelligent agents", in which an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines"
Computational intelligence (CI) is a set of nature-inspired computational methodologies and approaches to address complex real-world problems to which traditional approaches, i.e., first principles modeling or explicit statistical modeling, are ineffective or infeasible. Many such real-life problems are not considered to be well-posed problems mathematically, but nature provides many counterexamples of biological systems exhibiting the required function, practically. For instance, the human body has about 200 joints (degrees of freedom), but humans have little problem in executing a target movement of the hand, specified in just three Cartesian dimensions. Even if the torso were mechanically fixed, there is an excess of 7:3 parameters to be controlled for natural arm movement. Traditional models also often fail to handle uncertainty, noise and the presence of an ever-changing context. Computational Intelligence provides solutions for such and other complicated problems and inverse problems. It primarily includes artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation and fuzzy logic. In addition, CI also embraces biologically inspired algorithms such as swarm intelligence and artificial immune systems, which can be seen as a part of evolutionary computation, and includes broader fields such as image processing, data mining, and natural language processing. Furthermore other formalisms: Dempster–Shafer theory, chaos theory and many-valued logic are used in the construction of computational models. The characteristic of "intelligence" is usually attributed to humans. More recently, many products and items also claim to be "intelligent". Intelligence is directly linked to the reasoning and decision making. Fuzzy logic was introduced in 1965 as a tool to formalise and represent the reasoning process and fuzzy logic systems which are based on fuzzy logic possess many characteristics attributed to intelligence. Fuzzy logic deals effectively with uncertainty that is common for human reasoning, perception and inference and, contrary to some misconceptions, has a very formal and strict mathematical backbone ('is quite deterministic in itself yet allowing uncertainties to be effectively represented and manipulated by it', so to speak). Neural networks, introduced in 1940s (further developed in 1980s) mimic the human brain and represent a computational mechanism based on a simplified mathematical model of the perceptrons (neurons) and signals that they process. Evolutionary computation, introduced in the 1970s and more popular since the 1990s mimics the population-based sexual evolution through reproduction of generations. It also mimics genetics in so called genetic algorithms.
originally posted by: pl3bscheese
a reply to: Aleister
If a human is doing something then that something has been programmed into it. Sorry, we're self aware.
originally posted by: CharlieSpeirs
When you click the photos folder on your desktop the computer is programmed to respond with the directive...
Totally unaware of self...
I think that was Aleister's point.
I don't see any basis for forming such an opinion for this experiment. Some robots were programmed by humans, and they did what the program told them to do.
originally posted by: onequestion
In my opinion this is an extra dimensional intelligence manifesting through technology.
Maybe there are other forms of awareness, but I don't see any evidence of that in this case of the three robots. These results seem perfectly explainable based on what we know.
we need to change the way we look at things and intelligence and realize that there are other forms of awareness beyond our ability to conceptualize how they exist.